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灌溉对冬小麦-夏玉米轮作体系土壤水平衡及作物生长的影响

标题: 灌溉对冬小麦-夏玉米轮作体系土壤水平衡及作物生长的影响
英文标题: Effects of Different Irrigation on Soil Water Balance and Crop Growth in Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System
作者: 于淼
出版时间: 2010-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 小麦,玉米,土壤贮水量,产量,水分利用效率
英文关键词: winter wheat,summer maize,soil water storage,yield,water use efficiency
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 文宏达
专业: 土壤学
提交时间: 2010
摘要: 河北省人均、亩均水资源占有量仅为全国平均值的1/7和1/9,并且降水量减少、蒸发量增大,水资源亏缺已成为河北平原农业高效持续发展的限制性因素.如何提高本区灌溉水的利用效率成为当前农业节水的研究热点.本研究选择辛集作为河北平原区小麦-玉米轮作体系的研究基地,探讨不同灌水时间、灌水次数和灌溉量下农田土壤水分的动态变化规律,研究不同品种小麦、玉米的生育进程和产量对不同灌水模式的响应特征,分析抗旱品种与高产品种对土壤水分利用的差异.主要研究结果如下:1、在整个生育时期,玉米两品种郑单958(a)和浚单20(b)不灌水处理0100 cm贮水量均低于灌水处理,郑单958两灌水处理间土体贮水量差异较小.两品种不灌水处理0100 cm土体的含水量明显低于灌水处理,两品种不灌水处理与灌水处理土壤含水量差异最大均出现在4080 cm土层.玉米两品种郑单958和浚单20各处理各生育期不灌水处理日耗水量均值分别比灌水处理降低46.88%和76.94%.玉米灌水量和灌水时期可明显影响冬小麦的底墒.灌一水和灌二水处理土壤1 m贮水量比不灌水增加,玉米生育后期灌水,土壤可供冬小麦利用的底墒水相应增加.小麦整个生育期0100 cm土体灌一水处理含水量均值明显低于灌二水和灌三水处理.灌一水处理与灌二水和灌三水处理土壤含水量差异最大均出现在4080 cm土层.春后补水后,B处理0100 cm土壤含水量均值比A处理增加.不灌水处理小麦田的耗水强度明显低于灌水处理.2、不同灌水处理对玉米产量构成影响较小.不同密度下玉米两品种的穗数和穗粒数差异显著.郑单958的产量比普通品种受灌水量的影响较小.浚单20灌水比不灌水处理增产8.02%.两品种玉米以不灌水处理的水分利用效率(WUE)最高.浚单20灌一水比灌二水处理WUE均值增加16.40%.3、小麦两品种石新828(c)和邯7086(d)产量最高值均出现在B3处理.两品种A处理春后不灌水处理产量比春后灌水处理差异显著,两品种A处理产量均值比春后补水处理(B)增加10.79%.小麦WUE值随耗水量增加而减少,两品种A处理均值比B处理降低8.48%.两品种B处理WUE比A处理分别增加2.25 kg·mm-1·hm-2和2.10 kg·mm-1·hm-2.两玉米品种不同处理各养分含量在060 cm都随土层深度的加深而下降,各处理土壤各种养分含量都主要集中在010 cm.4、在周年内,小不同处理灌一水处理年产值和灌水利用效益均与灌四水处理差异显著,两种灌四水处理年产值和灌水利用效益差异不显著.
英文摘要: The quantity of water per capita and land of Hebei province were respectively l/7 and l/9 to that average of China.Annual precipitation has been decreasing and evaporation has been increasing. The shortage of water resource has become the limiting factor of sustainable development of high-efficient agriculture in North China Plain.How to increase irrigation water use efficiency has become present research focus of agricultural water saving.So,the research chose Xinji as the testing field of winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in Hebei Plain, to study the effects of different irrigation on soil water dynamics and the response of crop,to analyse the difference between drought resistance variety of WUE and high yielding variety of that. The main results were as follows:1. Soil water storage of crop non-irrigated treatments was less than irrigation treatments. The difference of soil moisture content between irrigation treatments was litter. Soil moisture content of non-irrigated treatments was less than irrigation treatments in the 0100 cm soil layer.The difference of soil moisture content among three treatments was great in the 4080 cm soil layer.The water consumption per day of non-irrigated treatment decreased 46.88%and 76.94%than that of irrigated treatment.The least water consumption per day occurred between seeding and sprouting stage.Irrigation quantity and irrigating stage of corn influenced the soil moisture before sowing wheat. The soil moisture storage above 100 cm of irrigation one time and irrigation two times treatments added 50.05 mm and 68.04 mm than that of non-irrigated treatments. Irrigating during the late growth stage of corn, the soil moisture before sowing wheat increased. Soil water storage of crop non-irrigated treatments were less than irrigation one time treatments and irrigation two times treatments.The difference of soil moisture content among three treatments was great in the 4080 cm soil layer.After irrigating,B treatments was higher than A treatments in the 0100 cm soil layer. The least water consumption per day occurred between seeding and setting stage.After irrigating for the jointing stage, the water consumption per day of non-irrigated treatment decreased than that of irrigated treatment.2. Irrigation had less influence on the yield of Zhengdan 958 that was the drought resistance genotype.The yield of non-irrigated treatments decreased 8.02%than that of irrigated treatments, the WUE of non-irrigated treatments were higher than that of any other treatments. Compared with irrigation two times treatments, WUE of irrigation one time treatments were increased by 16.40%.With the depth of soil increasing, nutrient contents decreased in the 060 cm soil layer .The soil nutrient contents mainly concentrated in the 010 cm soil layer.3.The yield of B3 treatments of two varieties were the most. The yield of non-irrigated treatment and irrigated treatment under A treatments were significantly correlations.The yield of A treatment increased 10.79%than that of B treatment. Increasing the quantity water consumption,WUE of wheat decreased.The WUE of A treatment decreased 8.48%than that of B treatment.Compared with A treatments,WUE of B treatments were increased by 2.25 kg·mm-1·hm-2 and 2.10 kg·mm-1·hm-2. With the depth of soil increasing, nutrient contents decreased in the 060 cm soil layer .The soil nutrient contents mainly concentrated in the 010 cm soil layer.4.The annual product income of rrigation one time treatment and irrigation four times treatments were significantly correlations,two types of irrigation four times treatments were not significantly correlations. The irrigation water use benefit of irrigation one time treatment and irrigation four times treatments were significantly correlations,two types of irrigation four times treatments were not significantly correlations. The irrigation water use benefit of Ha+Ac treatments was the most.