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白洋淀芦苇对鸭养殖废水的处理效果研究

标题: 白洋淀芦苇对鸭养殖废水的处理效果研究
英文标题: Treatment Effect of Baiyangdian Reed on Wastewater from Duck Farm
作者: 律琳琳
出版时间: 2010-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 芦苇,鸭粪废水,处理,效果,灌溉,刈割
英文关键词: reed,duck-manure wastewater,treatment,effect,irrigation,cutting
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 谢建治
专业: 环境科学
提交时间: 2010
摘要: 畜禽养殖产生的粪尿、污水对水体的污染负荷,已经或正在成为比工业废水和生活污水更大的污染源.白洋淀地区由于畜禽粪便无害化处理和资源化利用严重落后,沿湖畜禽粪便等废弃物污染是水体氮磷污染的主要来源之一.而芦苇湿地可通俗的理解为一个内部过程长期为水所控制的生态系统,其对污染物的去除尤为明显.因此,研究白洋淀芦苇对养鸭废水的去除规律具有十分重要的实践意义.本研究主要采用室内模拟试验的方法,探讨了白洋淀芦苇湿地生态系统对鸭粪废水的净化规律.并结合野外试验研究了不同收割期白洋淀芦苇地上部生物量及氮磷含量的变化规律,探讨了芦苇的最适宜收割期,为保护白洋淀生态系统提供理论依据.主要结果如下:1.在低、中、高浓度鸭粪废水灌溉条件下芦苇地上部的生物量及株高均优于对照组,且生物量增重均显著.生物量分别增长36.1%、24.4%、24.3%,株高分别增长24.3%、8.3%、5.0%.2.不同时期的芦苇生态系统对鸭粪废水中总磷的平均去除率达到了98.79%.芦苇生态系统对废水总磷的吸收遵从乘幂函数方程Y = C 0X ?b;当温度T=23℃时,芦苇生态系统对鸭粪废水总磷的吸收效果最好.根据试验结果和当地自然条件估算出白洋淀芦苇生态系统的磷最大环境容量约为171.71t/a.3.芦苇生态系统对鸭粪废水中COD的去除率以及去除量都随着鸭粪废水浓度的增大而增加,净化效果是高浓度>中浓度>低浓度.芦苇生态系统对鸭粪废水中COD的净化均可以用一级动力学方程表示.其中:在中浓度处理条件下,T=27.2℃时k值达到最大,此时芦苇生态系统对鸭粪废水的净化效果最佳.以此为依据估算出白洋淀芦苇生态系统COD最大环境容量约为1655.22t/a.4.芦苇生态系统对鸭粪废水中氨氮的净化较为复杂,不同时期不同浓度处理条件下,生态系统净化废水中氨氮的拟合方程虽然具有很好的相关性,但并不能够用综合净化模型表示出来.5.灌溉鸭粪废水对芦苇湿地土壤全氮含量产生的影响主要集中在0-20cm的土壤表层,低、中、高浓度处理条件下,0-20cm土壤中的全氮含量分别比对照组高出7.87%、18.64%、29.66%;芦苇中的全氮含量在灌溉鸭粪废水条件下变化不大.芦苇地上部的全磷含量随着灌溉鸭粪废水浓度的升高逐渐增高,中浓度、高浓度条件下芦苇全磷含量差异均显著,分别比对照组高出28.79%和40.91%.6.选择合适的刈割时间可以促使芦苇长出新的幼苗.不同时期的单茬刈割和多茬刈割会给芦苇的生物量及全氮全磷含量带来不同影响.
英文摘要: The pollutants from the livestock and poultry breeding were becoming the third source of pollution after industrial effluents and domestic sewage. Due to the backwardness of harmless treatment and resource recycling of livestock feces, the disposal pollution such as livestock feces around the lake was one of the main sources of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of water bodies. Reed wetlands could be understood as a kind of compound ecosystem of which the internal process had been controlled by water and its removal effect on pollutants was obvious. Therefore, the study of reed wetlands in Baiyangdian Lake in the treatment of wastewater from duck farm had very important practical significance.An indoor simulation experiment was conducted to investigate the purification regulation of reed wetlands ecosystem for treating wastewater. A field test was also conducted to study the changes of reed aboveground biomass and nitrogen and phosphorus content with different cutting times to probe opportune cutting time and protect Baiyangdian Lake ecosystem. The main conclusions were as follows:1. Under the irrigation conditions of low, medium, high concentration duck-manure wastewater, the reed biomass and plant height were all better than control group and the biomass gained significantly. The reed biomass had grown 36.1%、24.4%、24.3%respectively and the plant height had grown 24.3%、8.3%、5.0%separately.2. The average removal rate of total phosphorus in the duck-mature wastewater reached 98.79%at different times of reed ecosystem. The wastewater total phosphorus absorption of reed ecosystem accorded with the power function equation Y = C 0X ?b and the best absorption effect occurred when T=23℃. The biggest phosphorus environmental capacity of Baiyangdian Lake reed ecosystem was about 171.71t/a with optimum temperature, based on experiment results and local natual conditions.3. The COD removal rate and rate amount of reed ecosystem increased with the increase of duck-mature wastewater concentration. The purification effect was high concentration>medium concentration>low concentration. The COD purification process of reed ecosystem could be shown by the first order dynamic equation. Under medium concentration treatment condition, the k value reached maximum with T=27.2℃when the COD purification effect reached the best. According it the biggest COD environmental capacity of Baiyangdian Lake reed ecosystem was about 1655.22t/a with the optimum temperature.4. The purification of ammonia nitrogen in reed ecosystem was complex. Although fitting equations of different periods and different treatments correlated well, they couldn't be expressed by a compositive purification model.5. The influence of irrigating duck-mature wastewater on the soil total nitrogen content was mainly concentrated in the 0-20cm soil surface. Under low, medium, high concentration treatment conditions, compared with control group, the nitrogen content of 0-20cm soil surface had increased 7.87%, 18.64%and 29.66%respectively. The reed nitrogen content had changed little with irrigation condition. Reed aboveground total phosphorus content increased gradually with the increase of duck-mature wastewater concentration. Under medium and high concentration conditions, the total phosphorus had increased 28.79%and 40.91%than control group, showing significant difference.6. Opportune cutting time was helpful to regrow new reed seedlings. Single-stubble cutting and multi-stubble cutting with different periods resulted in different reed aboveground biomass and total nitrogen and total phosphorus content.