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燕山山地华北落叶松人工林生物量分配格局及植物多样性的研究

标题: 燕山山地华北落叶松人工林生物量分配格局及植物多样性的研究
英文标题: Study on Spatial Distribution Pattern of the Biomass and Plant Diversity in Larix Princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. Plantation in Yanshan Mountainous Regions
作者: 徐郑周
出版时间: 2010-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 华北落叶松人工林,群落结构,物种多样性,生物量
英文关键词: Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. Plantation,Comrnunity structure,Species diversity,Biomass
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 马长明
专业: 森林培育
提交时间: 2010
摘要: 华北落叶松(Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.)是燕山山地分布最广、蓄积量最大的主要森林生态树种,对燕山山地水源涵养、水土保持,以及林区生态系统的形成与维护发挥着不可代替的作用.本文以燕山山地4个不同林龄的华北落叶松人工林为研究对象,以野外样地调查的数据为基础,对华北落叶松人工林的群落结构、物种多样性、生物量及其分配格局进行了研究.得出主要的结论如下:(1)从华北落叶松人工林的植物区系组成上来看,6年生华北落叶松人工林物种最多,为37种,分别属于19科33属;12年生华北落叶松人工林物种数最少为28种,分别属于17科23种;22年生华北落叶松人工林包含33个物种,分别属于15科28属;32年生华北落叶松人工林物种为34种,分别属于20科29属.可知华北落叶松人工林的植物区系丰富度随着林龄的增大呈现先下降后上升的趋势.(2)在不同林龄的华北落叶松人工林中群落成层现象明显,主要分为乔木层、灌木层和草本层,不同林龄中各层次盖度不同.在不同林龄华北落叶松人工林中,灌木层和草本层中的优势种和伴生种的物种组成和重要值都有较大差别.不同林龄华北落叶松人工林群落物种相似性表现为不同林龄华北落叶松人工林之间随着林龄的增大呈下降的趋势.(3)对华北落叶松人工林群落的灌木层和草本层的物种多样性的研究表明,灌木层的Margarlef丰富度指数随着林龄的增大,呈现缓慢下降的趋势;草本层的Margarlef丰富度指数随着林龄的增大,呈现波动变化.灌木层Shannon-Wiener指数随着林龄的增大,呈现波动变化;草本层Shannon-Wiener指数随着林龄的增大,呈现先上升后下降的趋势.灌木层的Pielou均匀度指数随林龄的增大,呈波动变化;草本层Pielou均匀度指数随着林龄的增大,呈现先上升后下降的趋势.生态优势度指数的变化趋势与均匀度指数变化趋势相反.(4)不同林龄的华北落叶松人工林中单株总生物量和各器官的生物量随着林龄的增大而增加,其中树干的生物量增长的速度最快.树干和树根生物量所占全株生物量的比例随林龄的增大而增加,树皮、树枝和树叶的生物量所占全株的比例随着林龄的增大而减小.(5)不同林龄华北落叶松人工林中,乔木层各器官生物量的分配格局有所差别.6年生林中,分配规律为树枝>树干>树皮>树叶>树根;12年生林、22年生林和32年生林中,分配规律为树干>树枝>树根>树皮>树叶.乔木层的总生物量随着林龄的增大而增加,乔木层的生物量更多的积累在树干中.不同林龄的华北落叶松人工林中,灌木层和草本层的生物量随着林龄增大呈现先下降后上升的趋势.在6年生林中,灌木层和草本层地上部分生物量所占比例最高;而在12年生林、22年生林和32年生林中地上部分生物量所占比例下降.不同林龄华北落叶松人工林总生物量与乔木层总生物量的变化趋势相同,乔木层生物量所占比例随着林龄增大而增大.
英文摘要: Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr. is the main eclolgical tree species, one of the widest distribution maximal cumulation in Yanshan mountainous regions. It has played an irreplaceable role in conserving water, mainting soil, forming and maintaining ecosystem of forests areas. Based on the data of the field investigation, we studied the plantation community structure, species diversity, spatial distribution pattern of the biomass of four different age stand in Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation. The main results are as follows.(1) From the view of floristic composition, the quantity of species was most in the 6-year-old Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation, in which the 37 specieces belonged to 19 families and 33 genera respectively. The quantity of species was least in the 12-year-old Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation, in which the 28 specieces belonged to 17 families and 23 genera respectively. There were 33 species in 22-year-old Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation, and they belonged to 15 families and 28 genera. There were 34 species in 32-year-old Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation, and they belonged to 20 families and 29 genera. It indicated that with the age increase of Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation, the richness floristic composition decreased at first and then increased.(2) The plantation showed stratification obviously in the different age stand of Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation, which can be divided into arbor layer, shrublayer as well as herb laye, and the coverage of each layer was different in different age stand. In the shrub layer and the herb layer, the species composition and important value of the dominant species and accompanying species were significantly different with the age increasing of the stand of Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation, the community similarity decreased.(3) The studies on species diversity in the shrub layer and the herb layer in Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation showed that: Margarlef richness index in the shrub layer decreased slowly with the increasing stand age, but Margarlef richness index in the herb layer appeared fluctuation variation, with the increasing stand age. In the shrub layer, Shannon-Wiener index appeared fluctuation variation, with the increasing stand age. But Shannon-Wiener index in the herb layer increased at first and then decreased with the increasing stand age. Pielou evenness index in the shrub layer appeared fluctuation variation, with the increasing stand age, but Pielou evenness indexin the herb layer increased at first and then decreased with increasing stand age. The variation tendency of ecological dominance index was opposite to changing tendency of evenness index.(4) The individual biomass and biomass of each organ in the different age stand of Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation increased with the increasing stand age, and the biomass growth rate of trunk were the fastest. The percentage of truck and root biomass accounting for whole plant biomass increased with increasing stand age. The percentage of bark, branches and leaves biomass accounting for whole plant biomass decreased with the increasing stand age.(5) The spatial distribution pattern of each organ biomass was different in the arbor layer in Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation. In the 6-year-old plantation, distribution pattern was in the order of branches> trunk> bark> leaves> root. In the 12-year-old plantation, 22-year-old plantaion and 32-year-old plantaion, distribution patterns were in the order of trunk> branches> root> bark> leaves. In the arbor layer, the total biomass increased with increasing stand age, and the biomass was more accumulation in the trunk. In the different age stand of Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation, the biomass in the shrub layer and herb layer were decreased at first and then increased with increasing stand age. In the 6-year-old plantaion, the percentage of above-ground biomass in the shrub layer and herb layer accouting for whole biomass were the highest, but the propotion were decreased in the 12-year-old plantaion, 22-year-old plantaion and 32-year-old plantaion. In the different age stand of Larix princicpis-rupprechtii Mayr. plantation, the total biomass changing tendency were same as the biomass of arbor layer. The percentage of the biomass of arbor layer increased with the increasing stand age.