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塞罕坝主要森林群落林分结构及生产效能分析研究

标题: 塞罕坝主要森林群落林分结构及生产效能分析研究
英文标题: Analysis and Research for Stand Structure and Productive Efficiency of Main Forest Community in Saihanba
作者: 田国恒
出版时间: 2010-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 林分结构,生物多样性,生物量,生产力,生产效能
英文关键词: forest structure,biological diversity,biomass,productivity,production efficiency
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 谷建才%白顺江
专业: 森林经理学
提交时间: 2010
摘要: 本论文以塞罕坝地区华北落叶松、樟子松、山杨、白桦四种主要树种为研究对象,从林分结构、林分生物量、生产力和林分生产效率方面进行分析研究,旨在为塞罕坝地区森林的经营与管理提供科学的理论依据.主要结论包括以下几方面:(1)对塞罕坝地区四种主要林分类型(华北落叶松、樟子松、山杨、白桦)进行直径、树高分布规律及模拟的研究,结果显示:不同林分类型直径、树高的分布总体上呈现正态分布.其中,樟子松林和白桦林的直径分布模拟符合正态分布,华北落叶松林、樟子松林和山杨林的树高分布模拟符合正态分布;对不同林分类型灌木层和草本层进行α物种多样性和β多样性研究,结果表明:①各林分类型草本层物种丰富度指数均大于灌木层.其中,草本层物种丰富度指数最大的是白桦林,最小的是山杨林.而灌木层物种丰富度指数较大的是山杨林和白桦林,华北落叶松林和樟子松林的则较小;②多样性方面,灌木层的Simpson指数和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数最大的林分分别为樟子松林、山杨林,最小的是华北落叶松.草本层Simpson指数和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数最大的林分分别为华北落叶松林和白桦林,最小的为山杨林;③在均匀度方面,灌木层Jsw和Jsi均匀度指数最大的林分均为樟子松,而华北落叶松最小.草本层的均匀度指数Jsw和Jsi差异都不大.其中,樟子松均匀度指数Jsw最大,华北落叶松的均匀度指数Jsi最大,白桦和山杨都相对较小.总体来看,不同林分类型之间灌木层和草本层的相异系数都较大,说明不同林份之间共有种较少.(2)根据塞罕坝地区近15~30年来该四种主要树种的生产力分析,反映出塞罕坝地区主要树种的生产力情况,得出其相应的平均生产力,其中樟子松的平均生产力最高为6.53t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1);其次为华北落叶松和山杨,分别为5.36t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1)和3.21t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1);白桦的平均生产力最低为3.13t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1).根据塞罕坝地区近30年的气象数据分析研究,反映出塞罕坝地区近30年来气候生产力范围在12.48~14.52t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1)之间,在1989年时气候生产力最低为12.48t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1),在2007年时气候生产力达到最高为14.52t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1),平均气候生产力为13.70t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1).根据四种主要树种近15~30年来生产效率情况,得出其相应的平均生产效率,其中樟子松林分的平均生产效率最高为0.49;其次为华北落叶松和山杨,分别为0.39和0.25;白桦的平均生产效率最低为0.23.
英文摘要: This paper use Larch, pine, aspen, birch four main tree species for study of objects in saihanba, from stand structures, stand biomass, productivity and forest productivity analysis research designed to provide the saihanba area of forest management and the management provides the theoretical basis of science. The major conclusions include the following:(1) On research in four major forest types (Larch, pine, aspen, birch) diameter, tree height for distribution and simulation research results show: forests of diameter and height of the structure of distributions to be rendered on the normal distribution law; Scotch pine and birch forest diameter distribution consistent with normal simulation, and Scots pine and trees that davidiana Division advanced simulation in line with the normal distribution simulation distribution. On the different types of shrubs and herbaceous layerαspecies diversity andβdiversity analysis, the results can be: herbaceous species abundance indices were better than the large shrub layer, poplar and birch shrub species richness index is greater than the larch and Scotch pine, birch forests of herbaceous layer abundance indices is the largest, most davidiana points; diversity index shrub layer of Simpson and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showing the largest forest respectively Scotch pine, poplar, and the smallest are the larch, herbaceous Simpson and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showing the largest forests are the larch forest, birch, and the smallest is davidiana; uniformity index of shrub layer of Jsw and Jsi performance of the largest forest are Scotch pine, larch, herbaceous layer of uniformity index Jsw and Jsi differences are not large, Pinus sylvestris uniformity index Jsw Max, larch uniformity index Jsi maximum, white birch and Populus tremuloides are relatively small. Different forest types shrub layer between and herbaceous layer different coefficients are large, their common species are relatively small.(2) According to the saihanba region near 15~30 years to the four main tree species for productivity analysis, reflecting the saihanba productivity in main tree species, its corresponding average productivity, where the average productivity pines up to 6.53 t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1); this was followed by sales of larch and Populus tremuloides, namely 5.36 t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1) And 3.21 t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1); the average productivity of a minimum as 3.13 t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1).According to the saihanba region near 30 years of weather data analysis, reflecting the saihanba region near 30 years climate productivity range in 12.48 - 14.52 t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1), between the 1989 years minimum climate productivity when 12.48 t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1), in 2007 , the highest climate productivity as 14.52 t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1), average climate productivity as 13.70 t·hm~(-2)·a~(-1). According to the four main tree species near 15 ~ 30 years production efficiency, its corresponding average productivity, where the average Pinus sylvestris productivity up to 0.49 ; this was followed by sales of larch and Populus tremuloides, namely 0.39 and 0.25 ; the lowest average productivity as 0.23.