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几种杀菌剂对苹果斑点落叶病和轮纹病的防效评价

标题: 几种杀菌剂对苹果斑点落叶病和轮纹病的防效评价
英文标题: Efficacy of Several Fungicides in Controlling Apple Leaf Spot and Apple Ring Rot
作者: 段俊飞
出版时间: 2012-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 杀菌剂,吡唑醚菌酯,苹果斑点落叶病,苹果轮纹病,抑制作用,田间防效
英文关键词: fungicide,pyraclostrobin,A. alternata f. sp. mali,Botryosphaeria dothidea,inhibitory effect,field efficacy
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 曹克强%王亚南
专业: 农药学
提交时间: 2012
摘要: 苹果斑点落叶病和轮纹病是苹果生产中的常见病害,当前已成为苹果产业发展的限制性因素.目前在病害的防治中主要存在选用药剂较多、使用混乱、抗药性等问题.因此,对目前生产上的药剂做出客观评价,为果农推荐出首选药剂,以及筛选新的有效药剂,是本文的主要研究目的.1.对14种登记备案的杀菌剂进行室内毒力测定,选出5种抑菌效果较好的进行田间药效试验,最终确定对苹果斑点落叶病有较好防效的杀菌剂.10%苯醚甲环唑WG、10%己唑醇ME、50%异菌脲WP、43%戊唑醇SC对菌丝生长有明显的抑制作用,EC50分别为0.3252 mg/L、0.3865 mg/L、0.9537 mg/L和1.8021 mg/L;60%吡唑醚菌酯?代森联WG、70%丙森锌WP、3%多抗霉素WP对孢子萌发有较强的抑制作用,EC50分别为0.1087 mg/L、0.3300 mg/L和0.3323 mg/L;3%多抗霉素WP和50%异菌脲WP在保定温仁和望都两地田间药效试验中表现良好防效,分别为82.21%、82.86%和84.41%、78.76%.3%多抗霉素WP和50%异菌脲WP防效显著,可作为防治该病的首选药剂.2.本试验采用菌丝生长速率法和孢子萌发法测定了25%吡唑醚菌酯EC对苹果斑点落叶菌和苹果轮纹病菌的毒力,并进行了田间药效试验.室内测定结果表明:吡唑醚菌酯对苹果斑点落叶病菌菌丝生长和孢子萌发的EC50分别为0.1763 mg/L和0.2755 mg/L.对苹果轮纹病菌菌丝生长和孢子萌发的EC50分别为0.0333 mg/L和0.6029 mg/L;100~167 mg/L(1500~2500倍液),25%吡唑醚菌酯EC对苹果斑点落叶病的防效为96.72%~98.69%,对苹果轮纹病的防效为93.17%~98.80%,且该药剂在本试验剂量范围内对苹果树安全.
英文摘要: The leaf spot and ring rot on apple are the main diseases damaging apple trees and have become the restrictive factor of apple industry development. Several problems exist and remain unsolved, such as too many registered fungicides,the confusion in production application and the problem of resistance development. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the control efficacy of fungicides registed and provide useful information to fruit growers and select out new effective fungicides.1. The inhibitory activity of 14 fungicides against A. alternata f. sp. mali causing apple leaf spot was determined by fungi toxicity test in vitro. The fungicides, which had better effects, were further tried in fields. Four fungicides, including 10% difenoconazole WG, 10% hexaconazole ME, 50% iprodione WP and 43% tebuconazole SC, had significant inhibitory effect on mycelial growth. With EC50 four fungicides were 0.3252 mg/L, 0.3865 mg/L, 0.9537 mg/L and 1.8021 mg/L, respectively. 60% pyraclostrobin-metiram WG, 70% propineb WP and 3% polyoxin WP had strong inhibitory effect on spore germination, with EC50 of 0.1087 mg/L, 0.3300 mg/L and 0.3323 mg/L. The result of field trials showed that the control effect of 3% polyoxin WP and 50% iprodione WP was 82.21%, 82.86% and 84.41%, 78.76% in Wenren and Wangdu county of Baoding, respectively, which were better than other fungicides significantly. 3% polyoxin WP and 50% iprodione WP can be used as preferably selected fungicides to control apple leaf spot.2. Fungitoxicity of pyraclostrobin against A. alternata f. sp. mali and Botryosphaeria dothidea was measured by mycelial growth rate method and spore germination method. And the field efficacy of 25% pyraclostrobin EC controlling apple leaf spot and apple ring rot was evaluated. The results showed that the EC50 of 25% pyraclostrobin EC to A. alternata f. sp. mali in inhibiting mycelial growth and spore germination was 0.1763 mg/L and 0.2755 mg/L, respectively, and EC50 to B.·dothidea was 0.0333 mg/L and 0.6029 mg/L, respectively. The efficacy of 25% pyraclostrobin EC was 96.72%~98.69% in controlling apple Alternaria blotch caused by Alternaria mali and 93.17%~99.15% in controlling apple ring rot caused by B. dothidea at the rate of 100~167 mg/L (diluted by 1500~2500-fold), respectively. During the field tests pyraclostrobin was safe to apple trees at the trials dosages.