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燕山北部山地华北落叶松人工林生物碳贮量研究

标题: 燕山北部山地华北落叶松人工林生物碳贮量研究
英文标题: Biological Carbon Storage of Larch Forests in North Region of YanShan Mountain
作者: 耿丽君
出版时间: 2010-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 生物量,含碳率,碳汇,碳计量,森林抚育
英文关键词: biomass,carbon rate,carbon sinks,carbon measurement,forest tending
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 许中旗
专业: 生态学
提交时间: 2010
摘要: 本文以燕山北部山地不同年龄华北落叶松人工林为研究对象,对林分乔木层主要建群树种、灌木层、草本层各器官含碳率、森林生态系统碳贮量及其空间分配特征、不同抚育措施对华北落叶松人工林碳贮量的影响以及对华北落叶松人工林固定CO2的价值进行了研究,旨在了解在燕山北部山地大面积分布的华北落叶松人工林的碳汇功能,为该地区森林生态系统碳循环的研究提供科学依据,为在全球气候变化条件下我国森林生态系统碳汇管理对策提供理论指导.主要结果如下:(1)华北落叶松人工林中,7个乔木树种的地上器官平均含碳率差别不大,分别为52.86%(华北落叶松)、52.78%(白桦)、54.09%(山杨)、52.80%(棘皮桦)、50.54%(蒙古栎)、49.73%(色木槭)、51.21%(大叶椴).不同器官的含碳率中,均以叶的含碳率最高.10种灌木器官的平均含碳率为51.23%.草本器官的平均含碳率为40.98%.4种林分凋落物平均含碳率为40.98%.(2) 9年、18年、33年和43年生华北落叶松人工林林分生物量依次为:43.67 t/hm2、67.70 t/hm2、110.38 t/hm2、281.66 t/hm2,其中地上部分比例占41.25%74.44%,地下部分比例占8.00%13.34%.乔木层生物量依次为28.62 t/hm2、49.76 t/hm2、98.03 t/hm2、210.50t/hm2.灌木层生物量有随林分年龄增加而逐渐降低的趋势,分别为2.50 t/hm2、1.74 t/hm2、1.06 t/hm2、0.05t/hm2;草本层生物量没有表现出明显的变化规律,依次为0.17 t/hm2、0.26 t/hm2、1.28 t/hm2、0.51t/hm2.(3)9年生、18年生、33年生和43年生华北落叶松人工林森林植被层总碳贮量有随林分年龄的增加而增加的趋势,由小到大依次为: 21.97 t/hm2、34.14 t/hm2、55.62 t/hm2和141.70 t/hm2.其总碳贮量构成中,乔木层碳贮量在森林植被总碳贮量中占有最大比重,所占比例为65.8%88.9%.另外,凋落物碳库在森林总碳库中占有突出地位,达到9%28.2%,而林下植被层碳贮量最低,只占0.2%6%.乔木层地上部分和地下部分碳元素的贮量所占比例变化不大,但枝、叶中碳贮量所占比例有随林龄的增加而逐渐降低的趋势.(4)华北落叶松人工林生物量转化与扩展因子BCEF及生物量扩展因子BEF表现为随林木胸径的增加而下降的趋势,初期下降速度较快,大于8cm时,下降速度渐缓,最后趋于稳定,同时,BCEF、BEF及根茎比有随林龄的增加而逐渐下降的趋势;该地区华北落叶松人工林的BCEF和BEF值接近于中国各地区落叶松林的平均水平.(5)在3种间伐强度下,随着林分年龄的增加,林木碳汇的总损失量均逐渐增大,但损失量在总碳库中所占比例则没有明显变化规律.(6) 3种修枝强度对9年生落叶松人工林碳汇的影响存在较大差异.在修枝强度为1m时,损失碳汇仅占原来总体碳汇的3%;当修枝强度为1.5m时,林分碳汇损失量明显增加,与修枝强度1m相比,损失量高达1倍以上,而且叶片损失量急剧增加;当修枝强度为2m时,林分碳汇损失量也存在一定增加,但总体损失量增加幅度有所减小.(7)随着林分年龄的增加,华北落叶松人工林的碳汇价值逐渐增加.按几种计算方法的平均值来看,高低排序为:43年生(5.23万元/hm2)>33年生(2.05万元/hm2)>18年生(1.26万元/hm2)>9年生(0.81万元/hm2).(8)在不考虑土壤呼吸的情况下,4个年龄华北落叶松林的当年固定碳的价值有较大差别,9年生、18年生33年生和43年生华北落叶松林的碳汇价值分别为119.90元/(hm2?a)、192.86元/(hm2?a)、903.41元/(hm2?a)、373.63元/(hm2?a).
英文摘要: In this paper, the larch plantations of different age groups in north of Yanshan mountain were studied, and various organs CCR of mainly constructive species of the forest tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer, forest ecosystem carbon storage and its spatial distribution characteristics,effcts of different tending for Larch Forests carbon storage was studied,the aim was to understand the carbon sink function of Larch Forests distributed largly in northern of Yanshan Mountain, and build up a scientific basis for the search of carbon cycle in different forest ecosystems of eco-geographical regions of our country, and provild the theoretical guidanc for the management strategiese of carbon sink of forest ecosystem in the conditions of global climate change. The main results are as follows:(1) In Larch Forests, the average carbon rates of the ground organs of 7 tree species were not very different, respectly were 52.86%(larch), 52.78%(birch), 54.09%(Populus), 52.80%(Betula spine) , 50.54%(Mongolian oak), 49.73%(Acer mono), 51.21%(large leaf linden). Carbon ratios in different organs of four aged stands tree layer species showed leaves were the highest. The average carbon rate of 10 kinds of shrubs organs was 51.23%. The average carbon rate of herbal organs was 48.98%. The average carbon rate of litter was 40.98%.(2) The biomasses of 9 years, 18 years, 33 years and 43 years Larch Forests respectly were: 43.67t/hm2, 67.70t/hm2, 110.38t/hm2, and 281.66t/hm2, in which the proportion of the aboveground sections accounted for 41.25%74.44%, the proportion of the underground sections were 8.00%13.34%. In turn, tree layer biomasses were: 28.62t/hm2, 49.76t/hm2, 98.03t/hm2, and 210.50t/hm2. Shrub layer biomasses increased gradually with stand age decreasing, respectively were: 2.50t/hm2, 1.74t/hm2, 1.06t/hm2, and 0.05t/hm2; herb layer biomasses did not show significant variation, followed by 0.17t/hm2, 0.26t/hm2, 1.28t/hm2, and 0.51t/hm2.(3) The total vegetation carbon storages of 4 different ages Larix forests showed a significant increase with stand age increasing, in order: 9 year were 21.97 t/hm2, 18 year 34.14 t/hm2, 33 year 55.62 t / hm2, 43 year 141.70 t/hm2. In the composition of the total carbon storage, tree layer carbon storage occupied the largest proportion, which accounted for 65.8%88.9%. In addition, litter carbon pool occupied a prominent position in forest total carbon pools, reaching to 9%28.2%; while forest floor carbon storage were the lowest, only 0.2%6%. The underground and aboveground part of tree layer carbon storages changed little, but the proportion of branches and leaves carbon storages decreased with age increasing.(4) The biomass conversion and expansion factor BCEF and biomass expansion factor BEF of Larch Forests showed a downward trend with the increase of DBH, the initial declined fastly, when larger than 8cm, the decline has slowed down, in the final the trend became stable; simultaneitily, BCEF, BEF and rhizomes gradually declined with stand age increasing; the BCEF and BEF value of local Larch Forests were close to the average values of China's various regions Larch Forests.(5) In three kinds of thinning intensity, the total loss of forest carbon sinks increased with the stand age increasing, and proportion of carbon loss for the total carbon storage of four aged larch Plantation forest in three kinds of thinning intensity showed the same variation rules, which the percentage of 43 years was the smallest, 9 years and 18 years were inferior, 33 years was the largest.(6) The impacts of three kinds of pruning intensity for 9 years Larch Forest carbon sinks were quite different. In 1m pruning intensity, the loss rate of carbon sinks only was 3%of the overall carbon sink; when in 1.5m pruning intensity, the forest carbon loss increased significantly, was more as high as 2 times than that in 1m pruning intensity, and leaves loss sharply increased; when in 2m pruning intensity, the loss of forest carbon sinks were also certainly increased, but the range of overall loss rate decreased.(7) With stand age increasing, the carbon sink value of Larch Forests increased gradually. According to the average of several methods, in turn as follows: 43 years old (52 300 yuan / hm2)> 33 years old (20 500 yuan / hm2)> 18 years old (12 600 yuan / hm2)> 9 years old (8 100 yuan / hm2).(8) Without considering the soil breath, the values of temporal fixed carbon of 4 aged Larch Forests were quite different, the carbon sink values of 9 years, 18 years, 33 years and 43 years larch respectly were 119.90 yuan / (hm2 ? a), 192.86 yuan / ( hm2 ? a), 903.41 yuan / (hm2 ? a), and 373.63 yuan / (hm2 ? a).