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水杨酸对切花秋菊'神马'花芽分化和开花的影响

标题: 水杨酸对切花秋菊'神马'花芽分化和开花的影响
英文标题: Effects of SA on Floral Bud Differentiation and Flowering in Autumn Chrysanthemum 'Jinba'
作者: 冯枫
出版时间: 2011-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 菊花,花芽分化,水杨酸,内源激素,成花诱导,开花
英文关键词: Chrysanthemum morifolium,flower bud differentiation,SA,endogenous hormones,floral induction,flowering
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 杨际比
专业: 花卉与景观园艺学
提交时间: 2011
摘要: 菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium)原产于中国,是我国的传统名花,也是世界四大切花之一.切花秋菊'神马'是我国主要出口的主栽秋菊品种之一,花期调控是其周年生产的关键,但是目前花期调控的研究比较少.近年研究表明水杨酸(Salicylic acid,SA)与激素和花芽分化有密切关系.本试验通过研究短日处理条件'神马'菊花花芽分化过程中内源激素的动态变化和SA对其花芽分化、开花、外观品质以及分化期间生理活动的影响,确定促进'神马'开花和改善外观品质的最佳SA溶液浓度,为今后施用外源SA调节切花菊花期,提高切花菊品质提供更全面的理论依据,以期达到提高我国生产优质出口'神马'切花菊的目的.主要结果如下:1.'神马'花芽分化分为9个时期,短日处理下历时27 d完成花芽分化过程.花芽分化过程中顶芽中GA3含量下降且大多时期保持在较低水平,叶片中GA3变化与之相反;顶芽中IAA含量先下降,在小花原基分化初期达到最小值,到花冠形成中期达到最大,叶片内源IAA含量在总苞鳞片分化初期前呈上升趋势,随后逐渐下降,到花冠形成期趋于平稳;内源CTK含量大幅增加,均高于未分化期;顶芽中ABA含量先下降,后期呈现上升趋势,叶片中ABA含量变化与顶芽相反,呈现先积累,经短暂平稳期后逐渐减少的趋势.花芽分化开始后CTK/IAA、CTK/GA3、ABA/IAA和ABA/GA3的比值均增大.2. SA处理显著的加速了'神马'的花芽分化和开花进程,以50μmol/L处理浓度最优,比CK提前6d完成花芽分化,显蕾、露白、初绽分别比CK提前5d、8d、8d,花期延长5d.同时,SA处理提高了植株的外观品质,并且经SA处理的植株的瓶插寿命也显著延长,以100μmol/L处理浓度最优.3. 50μmol/L处理降低了顶芽GA3的含量,但叶片中GA3变化与之相反;顶芽中IAA含量比对照下降更为显著;内源CTK含量大幅增加,显著优于对照;顶芽中ABA含量先下降,后期呈现上升趋势,叶片中ABA含量呈现先积累,后逐渐减少的趋势.50μmol/L处理显著的提高了CTK/IAA、CTK/GA3、ABA/IAA和ABA/GA3的比值.4. 50μmol/L的SA处理浓度提高了成花诱导期间植株体内可溶性糖和淀粉、蛋白质以及核酸等生长发育所必须物质的积累,提高了NR和PAL酶的活性.同时,植株体内游离态SA含量不断增加,结合态SA含量逐渐减少.
英文摘要: Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is the traditional famous flower of China, and it is also one of the four most important cutting flowers all over the world. Autumn-cutting chrysanthemum'Jinba'is one of the main cultivars for exporting in our country. To cultivate them all year round, the key is to control the florescence. But the studies on flowering regulation was limited. Recently we've found that Salicylic acid and hormones were closely related to the foral bud differentiation. In this trial we studied the changes of endogenous hormones in the apical buds and leaves and how the different concentrations of SA (0, 10, 50, 100, 150μmol/L) affected the floral bud differentiation and florescence, as well as appearance quality under short-day treatment. Then we could know which role did the SA and hormones played in the floral bud differentiation, and identify what is the best concentration to promote the florescence and appearance quality. It will be benefical to export chrysanthemum'Jinba'with high quality.The main results were as follows:1. The flower bud differentiation, which included 9 stages, lasted 27 days with short-day treatment. The results showed that GA3 contents in apical bud decreased and stayed at a low level in most of the time, however, the changes of GA3 contents in leaf were the contrary to the apical bud. The IAA contents in apical bud decreased first and reached the minimum value at the initial stage of floret primordia differentiation, and then reached the maximum value at the metaphase stage of crown formation. The IAA contents in leaf showed an increasing tendency before the initial stage of involucre primordia differentiation, then decreased later, and changed to be steady until the stage of crown formation. The contents of CTK increased greatly and were higher than those at the vegetative stage. The ABA contents in apical bud decreased first and then showed an increasing tendency, while ABA contents in leaves increased first and showed a decreasing tendency after a short steady period. The ratios of CTK to IAA, CTK to GA3, ABA to IAA and ABA to GA3 increased after flower bud differentiation started.2. The flower bud differentiation and flowering process of chrysanthemum were accelerated by treated with 10, 50, 100 and 150μmol/L SA, and the treatment with 50μmol/L SA was showed the best result among these treatments. Compared with the CK, the days of the flower bud differentiation were decreased 6 days, the visible buds stage, the flower bud broking stage and the flower opening stage were showed 5 days, 8 days and 8 days earlier respectively, and the blooming times was prolonged 5 days in the treatment with 50μmol/L SA. Otherwhile, the vase life and the appearance quality were highly improved by treated with different concentrations of SA, and the treatment of 100μmol/L SA showed the better result compared with other SA treatments (0, 10, 50 and 150μmol/L SA).3. During floral induction period, the chrysanthmums were treated with the 50μmol/L SA, the GA3 contents in apical buds, which were contrary to the leaves, were decreased; the IAA contens in apical buds decreased more than the CK; the CTK contents in apical buds and leaves were increased more than the CK; the ABA contents in apical buds decreased firstly and then showed an increasing tendency, while ABA contents in leaves increased firstly and showed a decreasing tendency. The ratios of CTK to IAA, CTK to GA3, ABA to IAA and ABA to GA3 increased significantly with 50μmol/L SA treatment.4. The contents of soluble suger, starch, protein and nucleic acid in apical bud and leaves of chrysanthemum, which were the essential nutrient elements during growing and developing, were increased during floral induction period by treated with 50μmol/L SA. At the same time, the activity of NR and PAL in apical bud and leaves of chrysanthemum were increased. The free SA contents were constantly increasing, while the conjugated SA contents were decreasing in the leaves of the plants.