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保定平原区农田提覆盖提高土壤水资源利用量的研究

标题: 保定平原区农田提覆盖提高土壤水资源利用量的研究
英文标题: Study on the Amount of Improved Utilization of Soil Water Resources by Mulching Field in Baoding Plain
作者: 孟霄
出版时间: 2006-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 保定平原,土壤水,土壤水资源,农田覆盖,秸秆覆盖,地膜覆盖
英文关键词: Baoding plain,soil water,soil water resources,field mulching,straw mulching,film mulching
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 程伍群
专业: 水利水电工程
提交时间: 2006
摘要: 保定平原是河北省主要的粮食主产区,农作物以冬小麦、夏玉米和棉花为主.由于保定平原特殊的地理位置和气候条件,导致了目前区域严重的资源型缺水局面,同时也决定了灌溉在农业生产中的特殊地位.保定平原区农业用水占区域用水总量的70%以上,是主要的用水大户.近年来,由于人口持续增长、工业迅速发展,工业及生活用水需求量与日俱增,农业用水不断被挤占,使粮食生产和农业的可持续发展受到了严重的威胁. 用于农业生产的水资源除了灌溉引用的地表水资源和地下水资源外,还有来自于降水直接补给农田的土壤水资源.土壤水资源具有巨大的资源量,在农业生产中,如果能够充分、高效利用土壤水资源,将会对灌溉水资源起到很好的资源替代作用,对于缓解区域水资源供需矛盾具有重要的意义. 目前,土壤水资源在农业生产中的作用己被越来越多的专家学者所认识,但是在农田覆盖提高土壤水资源利用量方面尚未进行过深入细致的研究.该文在全面搜集、总结、分析前人研究的基础上,结合保定平原的具体情况,对保定平原区土壤水资源及农田覆盖提高土壤水资源利用量进行了系统的研究,主要内容包括:①提出了该文对土壤水资源内涵的理解;②确定了平原区土壤水资源的计算模型,分析计算了保定平原区不同水文年土壤蓄水量的周年动态变化情况和土壤水资源的资源量;③结合保定平原主要农作物的需水量和需水规律,分析了主要农作物生育期和生育阶段内的土壤水资源量和水分盈亏量,为合理灌溉提供依据;④明确了农田覆盖节水增产的特点,并通过对农田覆盖节水增产效果的典型调查,分析计算了不同作物采取不同覆盖措施后的节水量和增产量,并以此作为现状标准,分析计算了保定平原区不同水文年不同作物采取不同覆盖措施后,因水分利用效率提高而相当于增加利用的土壤水资源量;⑤结合区域内不同作物现状农田覆盖面积,分析计算了不同水文年因采取覆盖而增加利用的土壤水资源总量,也即相当于节省的灌溉水量,采取覆盖相当于节省的灌溉水量分别占区域现状农业用水总量的7.7%、7.2%和5.1%,节水效果显著. 该文旨在通过对保定平原区土壤水资源及农田覆盖提高土壤水资源利用量的研究,明确保定平原土壤水资源的资源量及农田覆盖对农业生产的节水效果,为在农业生产中合理、高效利用土壤水资源,节约灌溉用水提供理论依据.对缓解区域水资源紧缺现状、保证农业的可持续发展和生态环境的改善具有重要的现实意义.
英文摘要: Baoding plain is a primary bread basket in Hebei province, winter wheat, maize and cotton are the main crops. The special geographic position and weather condition of Baoding plain lead to the complexion that short of water is a natural problem, and it also determined the peculiar status of irrigation in the farming. In Baoding plain, more than seventy percent of the total consumption of water is agricultural using water, which is the main consumption of water resources. In recent years, the demand of industrial using water and living using water are increasing continually because of population expanding and industry developing, which occupied large of agricultural using water and threatened the produce of food supplies and the sustaining development of agriculture.Agricultural water resources not only include the irrigation water resources but also involve the soil water resources supplied by precipitation directly. The reserve of soil water resources is abundant, if we make full use of it we may find that it will substitute a large number of irrigation water, and it also has a significant meaning to relax the contravention that existed in the demand and supply of water.At present, more and more experts and scholars have realized the function of soil water resources to agricultural cultivation, but there is no an embedded and subtle research about the effect of filed mulching on improve the utilization of soil water resources. This paper carried out a systemic study bases on the former study of the experts on the soil water resources and the effect of field mulching on improve the utilization of soil water resources in Baoding plain. The main contents are: ①Put forward the meaning of soil water resources;②Confirmed the calculating model of soil water resources, analysed the dynamic variety of soil moisture and the amount of soil water resources in the year of different frequency;③Combining the water requirements of main crops, analysed the amount of soil water resources and the excess and deficit of soil water resources of main crops in their growing stage to supervise the irrigation;④Clarified the characteristic of the effect of field mulching on water saving and yield increasing, carried out the typical investigation to the effect of field mulching, analysed the amount of saving water and increased yield of different crops of different mulching measures, and according to the above results as the current standards, analysed the amount of improved utilization of soilwater resources of different crops of different mulching measures in the year of different frequency because of the improved WUE;(§)Combining the current area of mulched field of different crops, calculated the total amount of the improved utilization of soil water resources in the year of different frequency in Baoding plain, this is also the amount of irrigation saving water. In current conditions, we can save 7.7 7.2 5.1 percent of the total amount of agricultural using water in the year of different frequency by mulching field, and the effect of field mulching is prominent.The aim of the paper based on the study is to ascertain the reserve of soil water resources and the effect of filed mulching on water saving in Baoding plain, and also in order to provide the academic basis to make full use of soil water resources to saving irrigation water. It has great realistic significance to relax the status of short of water and ensure the sustaining development of agriculture and improve the entironments.