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河北省太行山山前平原种植业高效用水技术路径研究

标题: 河北省太行山山前平原种植业高效用水技术路径研究
英文标题: The Study of the Technology Path of the Efficient Using Water of the Piedmont of Mt. Taihang Shan in Hebei Province
作者: 石晨阳
出版时间: 2012-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 河北省,种植业,高效用水,技术路径图
英文关键词: Hebei Province,Farming,Efficient using water,Technology roadmap
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 王慧军
专业: 作物生产工程与技术推广
提交时间: 2012
摘要: 水是人类社会赖以生存和发展的不可替代的资源,是人类社会可持续发展的最基本条件之一.中国是一个干旱缺水严重的国家,是全球13个人均水资源最贫乏的国家之一.河北省是我国最缺水的省份之一,按照最新的水资源评价结果(2004年),全省水资源总量204.8亿m3,人均占有量304m3,只有全国平均水平的1/7,远远低于国际人均500m3的水资源极度短缺警戒线,属于极度缺水区.作为河北省重要粮食主产区的太行山山前平原区域,年降水量450~500mm,远不能满足维持作物正常生长发育所需的耗水量.因此,本区的种植业只有依靠灌溉才能实现高产高效.而太行山山前平原灌溉水主要来自于地下水,长期的过度超采导致了地下水位急剧下降,进而引发了一系列严重的问题,水已成为区域可持续发展的最大瓶颈.河北省太行山山前平原区的种植业如果不走节水模式,该区域的水资源无法支撑长远种植业的发展.本研究从河北省地下水严重超采的现状及种植业节水需求出发,采用专家问卷法、专家打分法、德尔菲法、头脑风暴法、电话访谈法、比较法、会议讨论法,多轮征求全省节水领域科研、教学、推广、行政管理、企业等100多名专家、学者,意见、经过反复讨论,确定区域的农业类型区边界、供水水源边界、节水技术边界、近远期节水目标、技术壁垒、研发需求、研发主体与资源配置.借鉴国内外各行业技术路线图取得成功经验,针对区域未来5-10年水资源短缺的问题,考虑保障经济、社会、生态的可持续发展,绘制了能够缓和河北省近远期地下水严重超采问题的太行山山前平原种植业高效用水技术路径图.通过技术路线图这一系统分析工具,寻找河北省山前平原种植业高效用水的技术路径.本研究是在路径图研究的基础上,分析了河北省太行山山前平原区种植业概况,水资源与种植业灌溉用水量,预测了未来5-10年种植业的产品生产总量,灌溉用水的技术壁垒,针对不同作物进行了技术对策的优先序排序,确定了不同作物通过农艺、生物、工程、管理技术要素的配套,实现种植业水分利用效率的提高的高效用水技术路径.重点需要研发的技术有:小麦玉米上下茬少免耕秸秆全覆盖节水耕作制度及关键机具研发;小麦玉米节水与抗干旱、冻害、高温灾害的耦合技术研究;高产节水新品种选育、鉴定及应用;蔬菜应重点研究地膜全覆盖膜下沟灌、地膜半覆盖、秸膜结合覆盖技术下节水灌溉制度及指标体系;实现根际精确灌溉的预警器和定量灌水节溉设备;主要果树的经济需水、耗水特征研究;果树适期、适量、适位灌溉和降低果树耗水量的关键技术研究和果实品质形成的水分生理研究等.
英文摘要: Water is an irreplaceable resource for the survival and development of human society is one of the most basic conditions for sustainable development of human society. China is a serious drought and water shortage, which is one of the 13 most short of per capita water resources country around the world. Hebei Province is one of the most unwater provinces in China. In accordance with the latest results of water resources assessment (2004), the province's gross water resources are total 20.48 billion cubic meters, while the per capita consumption is 304m3, which is only 1/7 of the national average, far lower than the international extreme water shortage warning line(per capita 500m3), are extremely dry.Taihang Piedmont region as an important grain producing areas in Hebei Province, of which the annual precipitation is 450 to 500 mm, can not meet the maintenance of crop water consumption required for normal growth and development. Therefore, the farming in this area only relies on irrigation to achieve high efficiency. Taihang Piedmont irrigation water basically comes from groundwater, and the long-term excessive overexploitation led to a sharp decline in the groundwater level, triggering a series of serious problems. Water has become the biggest bottleneck of regional sustainable development. If Hebei Taihang Piedmont farming region does not take water-saving mode, the region's water resources can not support the development of long-term farming.According to the condition of groundwater over exploited status and farming water needs, this research uses expert questionnaire, expert scoring method, Delphi method, brainstorming, telephone interviews, comparative method, the meeting discussion method, and several rounds of seeking more than 100 experts and scholars from the area of the province's water conservation areas of research, teaching, promotion, administration, enterprise. After repeated discussions, it determines the boundary of the region's agricultural zones, water supply, water boundary, water-saving technology boundaries, and long term water-saving goals, technical barriers, R&D needs, the main research and development and resource allocation. Learning from successful experience of domestic and international industry technology roadmap, for water shortage problem of this region in 5 to 10 years, this research considers the protection of economic, social and ecological sustainable development, and draws Taihang Piedmont farming efficient water technology roadmap, which can ease the condition that the short and long term groundwater over exploited in Hebei Province. Using the systems analysis tools of technology roadmap, it can find the technology of farming efficient water using in the piedmont.On the basis of the research of the route map, this study not only analyzes the planting industry profiles, water resources and the consumption of planting irrigation water in the piedmont of TaiHang Mountain in HeBei province but also forecast the total production of planting industry in the next 5 to 10 years and technical barrier of irrigation. In addition, it sorts technical countermeasures for different crops according to Priority and confirms high efficient technical path that the different crops through the agricultural, biological, engineering, management of technology matching to improve Planting industry water use efficiency. There are many important technologies to research and development: Minimum and No Tillage of wheat or corn and straw covered water-saving cropping system, research and development of key equipment. The research of coupling technology between water-saving of wheat and corn and drought resistance, cold, high temperature disasters. Selection, identification and application of high and water-saving new varieties. Vegetable research should focus on furrow irrigation under whole film, water-saving irrigation system and the index system under combining half film covered and straw membrane covered. To realize warning device used for accurate irrigation of rhizosphere and quantitative irrigation equipment. The research on water consumption characteristics and economic requirement of main fruit trees. Research of key technology in irrigating fruit trees with optimum stage, proper amount and right position and reducing water consumption. Study on water physiology of fruit quality forming.