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灌水次数和施钾量对冬小麦群体物质生产和产量形成的影响

标题: 灌水次数和施钾量对冬小麦群体物质生产和产量形成的影响
英文标题: Effect of Irrigation Frequency and Potasssium Fertilization Rate on Population Dry Matter Production and Grain Yield Formation of Winter Wheat
作者: 王丽金
出版时间: 2009-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 冬小麦,灌水次数,施钾量,群体质量,叶面积指数,干物质积累,产量形成
英文关键词: Winter wheat,irrigation frequency,potassium fertilization,population quality,leaf area index,dry matter accumulation,grain yield formation
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 李雁鸣%李瑞奇
专业: 作物栽培学与耕作学
提交时间: 2009
摘要: 为明确灌水次数和施钾量对河北平原节水栽培条件下高产冬小麦群体物质生产特性和产量形成的影响,分别于2006-2007和2007-2008年度在保定市和藁城市选用当地冬小麦推广品种(河农822、石新616)进行了灌水次数(0、1、2和3水,分别用W0、W1、W2和W3表示)和施钾量(K2O 0、112.5和225 kg/hm2,分别用K0、K1和K2表示)的两因素裂区试验.主要研究结果如下: 1、不同灌水次数和施钾量对小麦不同生育时期的总茎(穗)数、干物质积累、叶面积指数的消长动态等群体质量指标都有不同程度的影响.2年中越冬期和起身期的总茎数方差不同质,其他各生育时期的方差同质.2年综合分析,4个灌水水平中以W2中后期的总茎数最多,而W3的总茎数下降.干物质积累量随灌水次数和施钾量的增加而递增,各生育时期干物质积累量均是W0K0最少,W3K2最多.不同时期不同灌水水平间干物质积累的差异显著性不同,总的趋势是不灌水的W0处理显著较低,W3处理显著较高.不同施钾量之间比较,除孕穗期K1与K0之间差异不显著以外,其他各生育时期3个施钾量水平两两之间均差异显著.两年度各生育时期不同灌水次数水平下叶面积指数随施钾量的增加而增加.2006-2007年度,不同灌水条件下不同施钾量之间叶面积指数差异显著.2007-2008年度,施钾量对叶面积指数影响的程度降低,只在部分时期和部分灌水条件下差异显著. 2、不同灌水次数和施钾量对小麦产量、产量构成因素以及籽粒形成的影响不同.2006-2007年度不同灌水次数水平对产量和各产量构成因素的主效存在差异.虽然W3的产量高于W2,但灌溉次数最多的W3,各项指标并不是最优的,且W3与W2的产量之间差异不显著.4个灌水次数水平的3个产量构成因素的高低顺序虽略有差异,但总的来看W2表现最优,W0最差.2007-2008年度,由于3个产量构成因素的相互作用,W2的产量最高,且与W3、W1及W0的差异显著.W3灌溉次数最多,却因为有效穗数和穗粒数较低而导致产量略低于少灌一次水的W2.不同施钾量水平比较,仅2006-2007年度K1与K0、 K2的穗粒数差异不显著,而两年度3个施钾量水平之间的其他产量构成因素及籽粒产量都是两两之间差异显著. 3、适量增施钾肥能延长旗叶功能期,维持小麦灌浆后期有较高的叶绿素含量,与未施钾的K0相比,施钾的K1、K2叶绿素下降较缓慢,开花后35天仍保持较高水平.不同灌水次数和施钾量对小麦旗叶光合速率的影响存在交互作用.在灌水次数较多,水分供应较充足情况下,钾肥更能发挥其对光合速率的有利影响.在W0条件下,不同施钾量的小麦旗叶光合速率均在孕穗期即达到高峰,之后下降.W1条件下的K0也在孕穗期就达到高峰,而K1、K2在开花期才达到高峰.而在W2、W3条件下,不同施钾量的小麦旗叶光合速率均在开花期才达到高峰,光合速率高值期持续时间也较长. 4、小麦钾素积累量在整个生育期呈单峰变化,以开花期累积量最大.就阶段吸收而言,起身至拔节期钾素吸收量最高,占到全生育期最大钾素积累量的43%左右.小麦钾素吸收速率高峰出现的时期因灌溉次数和钾肥施用量的不同而存在差异,灌水次数和施钾量对不同生育阶段小麦钾素吸收速率的影响存在交互作用.2006-2007年度在全生育期灌溉0~1次的条件下,施钾水平为K0、K1的钾素吸收速率高峰出现在起身至拔节期,其他处理钾素吸收高峰均出现在拔节至开花期.2007-2008年所有处理的钾素吸收高峰均出现在拔节至开花期. 5、随灌水次数增加,小麦的水分生产效率下降.由于2007-2008年度小麦生育期间降水较多,导致小麦的耗水量增加,因此,两年度相同处理之间水分生产效率差异较大,2006-2007年度的小麦水分生产效率均高于2007-2008年度.随着灌水次数的增加两年度相同处理之间的差异逐渐变小,两年度W0K0处理之间差异最大,2006-2007年度高出2007-2008年度0.9 kg/ m3,相当于高27.8个百分点;W3K2处理差异最小,两年度相差0.1 kg/ m3,相当于3.1个百分点.总的来看,小麦的水分生产效率因产量和水分消耗而协调变化.灌2水的W2与灌3水的W3比较,W2的产量和水分生产效率均较W3高. 综合本研究各灌水次数和施钾量组合的产量及群体、个体指标分析,在河北平原节水高产栽培条件下,在保证底墒基础上全生育期灌拔节期和抽穗开花期2次水,在氮磷配合适宜条件下施用K2O 225 kg/hm2,可以基本满足目前高产、超高产对灌水次数和施钾量的基本需求,实现高产节水的双重效果.
英文摘要: In order to clarify the effects of irrigation frequency and potassium fertilization on population dry matter production and grain yield formation, two field experiments was carried out during 2006-2007 in Gaocheng County and 2007-2008 in Baoding with locally commercial winter wheat cultivar Henong 822 and Shixin 616 respectively. The experiments during two winter wheat growing seasons was designed as split plot arrangement, with irrigation times as main plots (including 0, 1, 2 and 3 times, expressed as W0, W1, W2 and W3 respectively), and potassium application amounts as split plots (including K2O 0, 112.5 and 225 kg/ha respectively). The main results were summarized as follows:1. Irrigation frequency and potassium fertilization affected more or less the indexes of population quality, such as the population culm number, dry matter accumulation and LAI. The variances of population culm number before overwinter and at double ridge stage between the two growing seasons were statistically different, but the variances of population culm number between the two growing seasons were similar statistically. The population culms of W2 at mid-late phenostages were the highest among the four irrigation levels, with that of W3 slightly decreased. The dry matter accumulation increased with the increase of irrigation times and potassium amounts, with that of W0K0 always lowest, and that of W3K2 highest. The difference of dry matter accumulation among the four irrigation levels was different at various phenostages, with that of W0 always lower, and that of W3 higher than those of other levels statistically. Comparison among the three potassium levels, only the difference of booting spike between K0 and K1 was insignificant. The other growing stages were statistically different among the three potassium levels each other. The LAI increased with the increase of potassium amounts under the four irrigation levels at various growing stages between the two growing seasons. During 2006-2007, the LAI of different potassium levels were statistically different among the four irrigation levels each other. During 2007-2008, the indexes of LAI among the three potassium levels were similar statistically, only at some growing stages and irrigation levels were statistically.2. Irrigation frequency and potassium fertilization affected more or less the indexes of grain yield and yield components. During 2006-2007, the difference of grain yield and yield components among the four irrigation levels was different at various growing stages. Although the grain yield of W3 was higher than W2, the yield components of W3 were really not optimum, the difference of W3 and W2 was insignificant. During 2007-2008, The highest grain yield was obtained for W2, and higher than those of other levels statistically, as a result of the iteration of the three yield components. Comparison among the three potassium levels, only the difference of grains per spike between K0 and K1 was insignificant during 2006-2007. The other two yield components and grain yield were statistically different among the three potassium levels each other in the two growing seasons.3. Proper potassium fertilization can prolong the functional period of flag leaf, and increase chlorophyll content further. As compared with K0, chlorophyll content of K1 and K2 decreased more slowly, and remained at a high level 35 days after anthesis further. The interaction of irrigation frequency and potassium fertilization amounts on chlorophyll content of flag leaf was statistically significant. Photosynthetic rate of flag leaf increased with the increase of potassium application, under more times in irrigation. Under W0 condition, the photosynthetic rate of flag leaf in the three potassium levels all reached a peak at booting stage, and then decline after booting stage. Under W1 condition, the photosynthetic rate of K0 reached a peak at booting stage, but the photosynthetic rate of K1 and K2 reached a peak at anthesis. Under W2 and W3conditions, the photosynthetic rate of flag leaf in the three potassium levels all reached a peak at anthesis, and for a longer duration.4. The dynamics of potassium accumulation in the whole growing stages showed a single peak, with the largest amount at anthesis. On the phasic absorption of potassium, the highest uptake of potassium was at double ridge to stem elongation, about 43%. The interaction of irrigation frequency and potassium fertilization amounts on potassium absorption rate was statistically significant. During 2006-2007, under W0 and W1 conditions, the highest uptake of potassium on K0 and K1 was at double ridge to stem elongation, but the others were at stem elongation to anthesis. During 2007-2008, the highest uptake of potassium on all treatments were at stem elongation to anthesis.5. The water productive efficiency increased with the increase of irrigation times. As a result of the more precipitation during 2007-2008, the water consumption increased. Th