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承德地区鸡球虫病的流行病学调查及药物预防研究

标题: 承德地区鸡球虫病的流行病学调查及药物预防研究
英文标题: The epidemiological survey and drug prevention research on chicken coccidiosis in Chengde region
作者: 李兰茹
出版时间: 2011-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 承德,鸡,球虫病,柔嫩艾美耳球虫,抗球虫药
英文关键词: Chicken coccidiosis,Eimeria tenella,anti-coccidia drug resistance,Chicken,Chengde region
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 秦建华%逯纪成
专业: 预防兽医学
提交时间: 2011
摘要: 鸡球虫病是一种危害极为严重的全球性寄生虫病.在鸡场中普遍发生,其发病率为50%~70%,死亡率20%~30%,严重时达到80%.对承德地区20家养殖场鸡球虫病的感染情况进行调查,了解养殖方式、饲养鸡只品种、感染日龄、季节的影响等因素,对承德地区感染球虫情况做初探.通过采取鸡粪便及发病鸡肠道内容物,采用饱和盐水漂浮法收集卵囊,制片镜检,观察卵囊和孢子化卵囊的形状、测量卵囊的大小,同时感染实验动物,记录寄生部位和病变情况,结合临床病变观察,鉴定出承德地区鸡球虫病的优势种,检出阳性率66.96%;通过药物对比试验及用药治疗效果分析,确定了效果好的抗球虫药物,为承德地区的规模化养鸡场正确地选用抗球虫药提供了实验依据.流行病学调查:从承德市及其部分县区随机抽取20家不同饲养方式的肉鸡和少数蛋鸡及土鸡的观察(其中承德双桥区4个,承德县5个,平泉县4个,双滦区2个,围场县3个,兴隆县2个),调查发现,其平均感染率66.96%.不同日龄、品种、饲养方式和不同季节的鸡都有不同程度的感染,其中50日龄以内、散养鸡、低饲养管理条件的鸡感染率较高,集约化养鸡场夏天比冬天感染率高.通过单卵囊分离,接种实验进行种类鉴定,结果表明承德地区的球虫种类有:柔嫩艾美耳球虫(Eimeria tenella),堆型艾美耳球虫 (E.acervulina),巨型艾美耳球虫(Emaxina),和缓艾美耳球虫(E.mitis),早熟艾美耳球虫(E.praecox),其中柔嫩艾美耳球虫(Eimeria tenella)为承德地区鸡球虫病病原的优势种.采用承德地区常用的抗球虫药(三字球虫王、地克珠利、莫能菌素、妥曲珠利、盐霉素)进行对比试验,试验后鸡的存活率、相对增重率、病变数、平均卵囊数、抗球虫指数指标,结果表明,磺胺氯吡嗪钠、地克珠利效果最佳,联合用药对鸡球虫的治疗效果也很好.该研究为承德地区的规模化养鸡场正确地选用抗球虫药提供了实验依据,并提出了合理的、适应生产实际的防治措施.??
英文摘要: Through the investigation on chicken coccidiosis for 20 farms in chengde regions, Realized how the breeding methods, chickens variety, infected ageindays and seasons influenced chicken coccidiosis. By taking chicken excrement and come on chicken intestinal contents Using saturated brine floating method to collect egg sacs, making slice and microscope, observing oocyst and spores of the egg sacs shape, measuring the size of oocyst and infected the experimental animals at the same time, recording the parasitic infection site and, carried on comprehensive appraisal disease, identified the advantage chicken coccidiosis, detection rate 66.96%; Through the drug contrast test and analyzing the effects of medication.Determined the anti-coccidia drugs for good effect.Provided experimental basis for large-scale fowl-run to select resistant anti-coccidia drugs correctly and put forward the reasonable and adapt to the prevention measures the actual production. Through the epidemiological survey: Choose 20 different breeding randomly from Chengde center and some counties,which included chicken,hens and native chicken(including Shuangqiaoqu 4, Chengdexian 5, Pingquan xian4, Weichangxian 3, Xinglongxian 2), The survey found the average rate, 66.96%. Chicken infected on different ageindays, variety, raising mode and different season.Among them the rates in 50 ageindays, bulk of chicken, low raising management conditions are higher, intensive chicken farm in summer higher in winter. Through a single egg sacs separation, vaccination experiments to identify the collected ball ovum sac.The results showed that Eimeria tenella, E.acervulina,Emaxina,E.mitis,E.praecox and Eimeria tenella are in Chengde area,which are the pathogen dominant species. Through the contrast test,using Sulfonamides sodium chloride pyrazine,Dikezhuli, Chlorobenzene metformin, Amprolium, Halofuginone,Keqiufen to investigate the Survival, relative weight increase rate, lesions number, average oocyst number index. The result showed that Sulfonamides sodium chloride pyrazine and Dikezhuli are the best, Combination treatment is also very good. The study provided experimental to select anti-coccidia drug resistance correctly, and puts forward the reasonable prevention measures for the actual production.??