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草毒再植病害发生机理及控制措施的研究

标题: 草毒再植病害发生机理及控制措施的研究
英文标题: Study on the mechanism and eontrolofre Plantdiseases on strawberry(FmgariaananassaDueh.)
作者: 甄文超
出版时间: 2003-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 草莓,再植病害,机理,控制措施,化感作用,药用植物
英文关键词: Strawberry,Replant disease,Mechanism,Control,Allelopathy,Medicinal plant
论文级别: 博士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 曹克强
专业: 植物病理学
提交时间: 2003
摘要: 再植病害是制约草莓生产可持续发展的严重问题.本研究在室内、盆栽和温室小区条件下,研究了草莓再植病害的表现、发生机理及药用植物材料对再植病害的控制效果.结果表明: 连作草莓生长发育不良、生育期延迟、土传根部病害加重,产量明显下降.在河北省主要草莓产区的7个连作地块选取发病植株,经分离、鉴定Fusarium oxysporum Schl.f.sp.fragariae Winks et Willams、Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn和Verticillium dahliae Kelb是连作草莓根病的主要病原菌,其中前两者在河北省草莓产区出现频率较高. 草莓连作对土壤、根际土壤和根表的微生物种群有一定影响.盆栽试验发现连作有利于土壤真菌的增殖.温室试验中连作处理根际土壤和根表真菌总量高于正茬处理.细菌、放线菌总量则低于正茬处理.生育期结束时,正茬处理根际土壤和根表细菌总量与真菌总量比值分别下降了57.3%和47.5%,连作处理则分别下降了93.2%和63.1%;正茬处理根际土壤和根表放线菌总量与真菌总量比值分别增高了4.75倍和8.25倍,而连作处理仅增高了42.6%和1.26倍. 草莓根系分泌物和腐解物的化感作用是再植病害发生的重要原因,土要表现为两个方面:①抑制草莓根系生理活性,使植株生长发育不良、抗病性降低:②促进病原菌菌丝生长、孢子萌发及侵染致病.利用高效液相色谱在草莓根系分泌物中检测到了对羚基苯甲酸,在腐解物中检测到了对经基苯甲酸苯甲酸、邻苯二甲酸、阿魏酸、香草酸和J一香酸.其中对羚基苯甲酸对草莓组培苗生长的抑制作用最强.运用ACCQ.Tag法在草荀根系分泌物和腐解物中检测出了6种氨基酸,其中精氨酸、苏氨酸、脯氮酸和丝氨酸对F.orysorum 和R.solai的菌丝生长有明显的促进作用;精氨酸、苏氨酸、脯氨酸和谷氨酸对F.orysorum和V.dahliae子萌发有一定的促进作用.用蒽酮法测定发现,草莓根系分泌物中含有丰富的糖分,不同浓度的葡萄糖、蔗糖对根病病原菌具有不同的作用.草莓根病病原菌对根系分泌物和腐解物中糖分和氨基酸的种类具有选择性.根据对草莓根病病原菌的抑制作用,从85种药用植物中筛选出5种效果较好的材料,盆栽试验表明,用5种材料的不同全组合和施用方式处理连作土壤,对再植病害有一定的控制作用,其中含有Ts-62、Ts-68和Ts-91的处理控制效果较好.温室小区试验中,施用药用植物材料的处理植株生长发育状况优于连作处理,病情指数、死苗率降低,最终产量比连作处理增高了32.6%~33.8%.??
英文摘要: Replant disease was a serious problem for the sustainable production of strawberry. The expression, mechanism, and control of replant disease of strawberry were studied under different conditions such as pot trial and greenhouse trial. The results were summarized as follows:After being planted year after year in the same field, the growth and development of strawberry were depressed, development period was delayed, root diseases became serious, and yield was reduced. Diseased samples of strawberry were collected from seven plots in major strawberry-growing areas in Hebei province. Then the main pathogens causing root disease were separated from them and identified. Results showed that Fusarium oxysporum Schl.f.sp.fragariae Wiinks et Willams, Rhizoctonia solani K U hn, and Verticillium dahJiaevere the main pathogens which could infect roots solely or jointly. F. oxysporum and R. solani were more popular in Hebei province.The population of microbes in soil, rhizosphere, and root surface were affected by strawberry replanting. According to pot trial, replanting soil was beneficial for fungi. In the replanting treatment of greenhouse trial, the gross amount of fungi in rhizosphere and root surface were more than first-planting treatment. On the contrary, the gross amounts of bacterium and actinomycetes in replanting treatment were less than first-planting treatment. At the end of growing period, the proportion of bacterium to fungus in rhizosphere and root surface decreased by 57.3% and 47.5% respectively in first-planting treatment, while the numbers were 93.2% and 63.1% in replanting treatment. The proportion of anctinomycete to fungus in rhizosphere and root surface increased by 4.75 and 8.25 times respectively in first-planting treatment, while the numbers were 42.6% and 1.26 times in replanting treatment.Allelopathy of strawberry root exudation and decomposed liquid was oneof important reasons for replant disease. Allelopathy not only inhibited to the physiological activity of strawberry root system, but also promoted to growth, germination and infection of strawberry root pathogens. P -hydrobenzoic acid, pathalic acid, syringic acid, vanllic acid, frulic acid, and Benzoic acid were determined in strawberry root decomposed liquid by using HLPC, while only -hydrobenzoic acid was detected in root exudation. -hydrobenzoic acid showed the strongest inhibition effect to growth of strawberry tissue culture seedings among all of six phenolic acids.Six kinds of amino acids were determined by using ACCQ. Tag method. Arginine, proline, serine, and threonine could promote the hypha growth of F. oxysporumand R. solani. Glutamic acid, Arginine, proline, and threonine could promote spore germination of F. oxysporum and V. dahliae. Glucide was abundant in strawberry root exudation and decomposed liquid according to determination using Authrone colorimetric method. The different concentrations of glucose and sugar had different effect on strawberry root pathogens. The pathogens of strawberry root disease showed priorities to different kinds of glucide and amino acid in root exudation and decomposed liquid.Eighty-five species of medicinal plant materials were tested for the inhibition to strawberry root pathogens. Results showed that five materials had better inhibitory effects on those pathogens. After treating replanted soil by these five materials, replant disease could be controlled to some extent. Medicinal plant materials Ts-62, Ts-68 and Ts-91 were better than Ts-5 and Ts-60. Results in greenhouse trial showed that strawberry seeding in medicinal plant treatments were stronger and with lower disease index and death rate. The yield increased 32.6% 33.8% compare to replanting treatment.??