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土壤水分对红富士苹果果实品质的影响

标题: 土壤水分对红富士苹果果实品质的影响
英文标题: Effect of Soil Moisture on Fruit Quality of Red Fuji Apple
作者: 高冬华
出版时间: 2009-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 红富士苹果,土壤水分,裂纹率,可溶性糖,酚类物质
英文关键词: Red Fuji apple,Soil moisture,Crack rate,Soluble sugar,Phenolic compounds
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 徐继忠%陈海江
专业: 果树学
提交时间: 2009
摘要: 随着我国社会经济的快速发展和人民生活水平的迅速提高,我国果品种类日益丰富,人们对苹果的消费已经不再满足于果实的大小,酸甜度等初级要求,而对果实的外观品质和营养功效等品质有更高的要求.本试验以红富士苹果为试材,在果实的生长发育期进行土壤含水量的水分处理,研究不同土壤水分含量对红富士苹果果实裂纹和果实品质的影响,以期降低红富士果实的裂纹发生率和提高酚类等营养物质的含量,进而提高红富士苹果的果实品质.主要研究结果如下: 1.80~85%土壤含水量能够显著提高红富士苹果果实裂纹率和裂纹指数;50~55%土壤含水量能够显著降低果实裂纹率和裂纹指数.果实不同部位裂纹率有高至低依次为梗洼部、中部和萼洼部.盛花后116天到132天为田间果实裂纹发生高峰期,盛花后139天到155天为盆栽果实裂纹高发期. 2.80~85%土壤含水量能够提高红富士苹果果实大小并增加果实重量;50~55%土壤含水量能够降低果实大小及其果实重量. 3.不同土壤含水量对果实含水量、硬度、可溶性固形物和有机酸含量的影响有差异.50~55%土壤含水量的果实含水量和有机酸含量最低,而果实硬度和可溶性固形物含量最高.65~70%土壤含水量的果实含水量最高,而果实硬度和可溶性固形物含量最低.80~85%土壤含水量的有机酸含量最高. 4.不同土壤含水量对成熟果实中可溶性总糖及果糖、葡萄糖和蔗糖含量均有不同的影响.果糖、葡萄糖和蔗糖所占可溶性糖的比例约为5:2:1.果实成熟过程中,果糖和蔗糖所占比例逐渐上升,葡萄糖所占比例不断下降.可溶性总糖,果糖和葡萄糖含量随着土壤含水量的降低而升高,蔗糖含量则随着土壤含水量的升高而增加. 5.红富士苹果果实中含有绿原酸、儿茶素、表儿茶素、芦丁和香豆酸5种单体酚类物质.不同单体酚类物质在未成熟和成熟果实中及果皮和果肉中含量均有差异.其中,未成熟果实中绿原酸、儿茶素和表儿茶素含量均高于成熟果实;未成熟果皮中儿茶素、表儿茶素、芦丁和香豆酸含量均高于成熟果皮以及果肉中的含量. 6.不同土壤含水量对成熟果实中总酚含量的影响不明显,但对果实中原花青素含量和各单体酚类含量有明显的影响.其中,80~85%土壤含水量处理后果肉中原花青素、绿原酸、儿茶素和表儿茶素含量均升高,在果皮中80~85%土壤含水量的原花青素、绿原酸、儿茶素和芦丁含量也均升高. 7.红富士苹果成熟果实中矿质元素含量由高至低依次为钾、钙、镁、铁、铜、锌和锰元素.不同土壤含水量对成熟果肉中各矿质元素含量的影响有所不同.钾元素含量随土壤含水量的升高而升高;而钙、铁、锌和锰元素含量随土壤含水量的升高而降低;不同土壤含水量对镁和铜元素含量的影响不明显.果皮中钙元素含量随土壤水分的降低而升高,钾、镁和锰元素田间随土壤含水量升高而升高,而盆栽中则下降;不同土壤含水量对锌元素含量在不同时期的影响不同. 8.不同土壤含水量对果实内SOD、POD和PPO活性有明显的影响.土壤含水量较高或较低都时均能提高果肉中SOD活性.但在果皮中,80~85%土壤含水量的SOD活性高于50~55%土壤含水量的活性.而果肉和果皮中POD和PPO活性变化相同,80~85%土壤含水量的POD和PPO活性高于50~55%土壤含水量的活性.
英文摘要: With development of national economy and improvement of living level, the kind of fruit in the market is becoming more and more in order to satisfy the improving demand of the customers including not only fruit volume and weight but also fruit appearance and nutritional quality. In this research Red Fuji apple was used as experimental material to study the effects of three soil water content levels (50~55%, 65~70%, 80~85%)on the fruit crack and quality, so as to lower the crack rate of apple fruit and improve fruit quality. The results were as follows:1. The crack rate and index of fruit were significantly increased with the increase of soil water content. The two parameters were the lowest under 50~55%conditions, while the highest under 80~85%conditions. The fruit crack rate in different position of fruit was peduncle stalk cavitymiddlecalyx concave. From 116 days to 132 days after full flowering stage, the crack rate of apple fruit under field conditions was the highest, while the fruit crack rate of apple grown in the pot was the highest between 139 days and 155 days after full flowering stage.2. The volume and weight of apple fruit were increased with the increase of soil water content. The fruit volume and weight were the lowest under 50~55%conditions, while the highest under 80~85%conditions.3. Fruit water content, hardness, soluble solid content and organic acid content were responded differently to soil water content. Under 50~55%conditions, the fruit water content and organic acid content were the lowest, while the fruit hardness and soluble solid content were the highest. Under 65~70%conditions, the fruit hardness and soluble solid content were the lowest, while the fruit water content was the highest. Under 80~85%conditions, the organic acid content of fruit was highest, and other parameters were middle.4. There were different responses in total soluble sugar, fructose, glucose and sucrose content of mature apple fruit to soil water content. The content of total soluble sugar, fructose and glucose in apple fruit were decreased with increase of soil water content, while sucrose content was increased. However, there was little influence of soil water content on the ratio of fructose, glucose and sucrose content to total soluble sugar content. Under three levels of soil water content, the ratio of fructose, glucose and sucrose content to total soluble sugar content was about 5:2:1. But the fruit development stage had great effects on the ratio of fructose, glucose and sucrose content to total soluble sugar content. With maturing of the fruit, the ratio of fructose and sucrose content to total soluble sugar content was increased gradually and the ratio of glucose content to total soluble sugar content was gradually decreased.5. The fruit of Fuji apple contained chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, rutin and coumaric acid. And the content of the five kinds of polyphenols above depended on the organs and development stages. The content of chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin in green fruit were higher than those in mature fruit. The content of (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, rutin andρ-coumaric acid was higher than those in the pericarp and sarcocarp of mature fruit.6. Soil water content had little influence on the total polyphenols content in mature fruit of Fuji apple, while significantly affected the content of proanthocyanidin, chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, rutin andρ-coumaric acid. With increasing of soil water content, the content of proanthocyanidin, chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin in sarcocarp gradually increased. Furthermore, the content of proanthocyanidin, chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin and rutin in pericarp increased to some extent with the increase of soil water content.7. The content of mineral elements in mature fruit of Red Fuji apple was potassium calciummagnesiumironcopperzincmanganese. The changes of mineral elements content in mature fruit depended both mineral variety and soil water content. With ascending of water content in the soil, potassium content increased, while the content of calcium, iron, zinc and manganese decreased. Changes of soil water content had little influence on magnesium and copper content. In the pericarp, calcium content lowered with increasing of soil water content. The content of potassium, magnesium and manganese in pericarp grown in the field increased with the increase of soil water content, while decreased under pot conditions. Moreover, the zinc content was also influenced by development stage besides soil water content.8. The activity of SOD, POD and PPO in apple fruit were significantly affected by soil water content. In the sarcocarp, the activity of SOD was stimulated under both 50~55%and 80~85%conditions, while the activity of POD and PPO were stimulated only under 80~85%conditions. In the pericarp, the activity of SOD, POD and PPO under 80~5%conditions were higher than those under