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水氮运筹对冬小麦群体物质生产特性和产量形成的影响

标题: 水氮运筹对冬小麦群体物质生产特性和产量形成的影响
英文标题: Effect of Irrigation and Nitrogen on Dry Matter Production and Grain Yield of Winter Wheat
作者: 赵雪飞
出版时间: 2009-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 冬小麦,灌水次数,施氮量,群体质量,产量
英文关键词: winter wheat,irrigation frequency,nitrogen amounts,population characteristics,grain yield
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 李雁鸣%李瑞奇
专业: 作物栽培学耕作学
提交时间: 2009
摘要: 为明确水分和氮肥运筹对高产冬小麦群体物质生产特性和产量形成的影响,分别于2006-2007和2007-2008年度在保定市和藁城市选用当地冬小麦推广品种(河农822、石新616)进行灌水次数和氮肥施用量的两因素裂区试验,研究了不同灌水次数(在保证底墒基础上全生育期灌0、1、2和3水,分别用W0、W1、W2和W3表示)和施氮量(0、112.5和225 kg/hm2,分别用N0、N1和N2表示)对小麦群体质量性状和产量形成的影响.主要结果如下: 1、2006-2007年度灌水次数和氮肥用量对小麦总茎数的影响显著.W1、W2和W3的总茎数显著高于不灌水的W0,而W1、W2、W3之间差异不显著,但以W1的最高.3个施氮量水平间的总茎数差异显著,且随施氮量增加而增大.在大部分生育时期不同灌水次数的LAI差异不显著,而不同施氮量水平间的LAI差异显著,N2的LAI显著高于N1和N0.2007-2008年度中,整个生育时期内灌水和施氮量对小麦总茎数、LAI的影响均不显著. 2、2006-2007年度,灌浆前期随着灌水次数的增加干物质积累量逐渐增加,但成熟期干物质积累量W3>W1>W2>W0.施氮量对干物质积累量影响显著,随着施氮量的增加干物质积累量增大N2>N1>N0.2007-2008年度,灌水次数仅对成熟期干物质有显著影响,不同水平间差异显著,其中W2干物质积累量最高,W0次之,W3最少,施氮量对干物质积累影响不明显. 3、2006-2007年度,灌水次数和施氮量对单株性状均有显著影响,单株茎数、株高、次生根均以中等灌水次数最高.施氮量仅在部分时期对单株茎数、株高、次生根影响显著,基本随施氮量的增加而增大.2007-2008年度,灌水次数和施氮量对小麦单株性状无明显影响. 4、2006-2007年度灌水次数对小麦叶绿素含量、光合速率影响显著.不同水平间的叶绿素含量、光合速率随灌水次数的增加而增大,且灌水次数越多后期叶绿素含量、光合速率下降越缓慢.叶绿素含量、光合速率受施氮量影响显著,随着施氮量的增加而提高,生育后期施氮量越高叶绿素含量越高、光合速率持续时间越长,且下降越缓慢.2007-2008年度中,灌水次数和施氮量对叶绿素含量、光合速率影响不显著,不同处理间的叶绿素含量、光合速率变化规律基本一致. 5、2006-2007年度灌水次数对穗数和千粒重影响显著,施氮量对穗数和穗粒数影响显著,以致灌水次数和施氮量对小麦产量的主效均达到显著标准.4种灌水水平以W3产量最高,W0产量最低;3个施氮量水平中N1产量最高,N0最低.灌水次数和施氮量对小麦产量和产量构成因素的交互作用显著,W0和W1灌水条件下籽粒产量随施氮量增加而提高,即较高施氮量能弥补因灌水次数少造成的产量降低;而W2和W3条件下中等施氮量的N1籽粒产量最高,且与N0的差异显著.2007-2008年度灌水次数和施氮量对小麦籽粒产量及产量构成因素的影响不显著. 6、两个年度中,灌水次数对小麦水分生产效率均有显著影响,随着灌水次数的增加水分生产效率下降,不同水平间差异显著.2006-2007年度,水分生产效率随着施氮量的增加而增大,不同施氮量间差异显著.2007-2008年度,不同施氮水平间水分生产效率差异不显著,不施氮的略高.两个年度中灌水次数和施氮量对水分生产效率的交互作用显著,表明在不同肥力水平下均能够通过合理的水氮运筹提高水分生产效率,实现节水增产的目的. 综上所述,2006-2007年度灌水次数和施氮量对小麦群体质量和籽粒产量影响显著,其中以中等灌水量和高施氮量的小麦群体质量最高,籽粒产量也最高.2007-2008年度灌水次数和施氮量对小麦群体质量和产量无明显效果,增加灌水量和施氮量在一定程度上反而降低了群体质量和产量.因此,针对不同降水年型和土壤肥力进行小麦的水氮运筹,对于提高水资源的生产效率,同步实现节水丰产,是十分必要的.
英文摘要: In order to clarify the effects of irrigation and nitrogen on population dry matter production and grain yield formation of winter wheat under water-saving conditions, two experiments were carried out during 2006-2007 in Baoding and 2007-2008 in Gaocheng County with locally commecial winter wheat cultivar Henong 822 and Shixin 616 respectively. The experiments during the two winter wheat growing seasons were arranged as split plot arrangement, with irrigation frequency as main plots ( including 0, 1, 2 and 3 times during the growing period on the basis of suitable pre-sowing soil moisture, expressed as W0, W1, W2 and W3, respectively ), and nitrogen application amounts as split plots ( including N 0, 112.5 and 225 kg/ha, respectively). The main results were summarized as follows:1. During 2006-2007, irrigation frequency and nitrogen amounts had significant effects on population culm number. The culm numbers of W1, W2 and W3 with irrigation was significantly higher than those without irrigation in W0. The difference of culm numbers among W1, W2 and W3 was not significant although that of W1 was the highest. The culm number among the three levels of nitrogen application amounts were different significantly and increased with the increasing nitrogen. The difference of LAI among the four irrigation levels was insignificant at most growing stages, but the difference of LAI among the three nitrogen application amounts was significantly different, with the LAI of N2 significantly higher than those of N1 and N0. In 2007-2008 experiment, however, the effects of irrigation frequency and nitrogen application amounts on population culm number and LAI at various growing stages were all statistically insignificant.2. In 2006-2007 experiment, dry matter accumulation increased with the increasing irrigation in early grain filling period. The dry matter accumulation were almost the highest under the irrigation rigimes of W3, W1, W2 and W0 at maturity. The effects of nitrogen application on dry matter accumulation of wheat were statistically significant, and increased with the increasing nitrogen. During 2007-2008, irrigation frequency only had significant effect on dry matter accumulation of maturity stage. Dry matter accumulation of W1 was the highest in the four irrigation levels, and the effects of nitrogen application amounts on dry matter accumulation was statistically insignificant.3. During 2006-2007, irrigation frequency and nitrogen amounts had significant effect on the characters of wheat plant. The numbers of secondary roots and culms per plant per plant of W1 rigime was the highest in the four irrigation levels. The characters of wheat plant among the three levels of nitrogen application amounts were different significantly in few growing stages and increased with the increasing nitrogen. In 2007-2008 experiment, however, the effects of irrigation frequency and nitrogen application amounts on such characters of wheat plants were all statistically insignificant.4. During 2006-2007, irrigation frequency and nitrogen amounts had significant effect on leaf chlorophyll SPAD and photosynthetic rate of leaves. The chlorophyll SPAD and photosynthetic rate among the four levels of irrigation amounts increased with the increasing irrigation, and decreased slowly with the increasing irrigation in late growth stage. The effects of nitrogen application on chlorophyll SPAD and photosynthetic rate of wheat were statistically significant, and increased with the increasing nitrogen. The duration of chlorophyll SPAD value and photosynthetic rate of leaves were longer and decreased slowly in late growth stage with the increasing nitrogen. In 2007-2008 experiment, however, the effects of irrigation frequency and nitrogen application amounts on chlorophyll SPAD and photosynthetic rate were all statistically insignificant. The dynamics of chlorophyll SPAD and photosynthetic rate of leaves were basically identical in different treatments.5. The effects of irrigation frequency on spike number per ha and grain weight were statistically significant, and the effects of nitrogen application amount on spike number per ha and grain number per spike were significant, so that the main effects of irrigation frequency and nitrogen application amounts on grain yield were all statistically significant. The grain yield of W3 was the highest, and that of W0 the lowest among the four levels of irrigation, and the grain yield of N1 was the highest, and that of N0 the lowest among the three levels of nitrogen amounts. The interaction of irrigation frequency and nitrogen application amounts on grain yield and yield components was statistically significant. The grain yield increased with the increase of nitrogen application under W0 and W1 rigimes, i.e. higher nitrogen application could offset the yeild decrease by less irrigation. Under W2 and W3 rigimes, however, the grain yield of N1 with middle nitrogen application was the highest, and was significan