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奶牛场数字化管理的无线通信系统设计研究

标题: 奶牛场数字化管理的无线通信系统设计研究
英文标题: Research on Design of Wireless Communication System for Digital Management of Dairy Farms
作者: 李泉辉
出版时间: 2010-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 奶牛场,无线传感器网络,通信协议,跨层设计
英文关键词: Dairy Farms,Wireless Sensor Network,Communication Protocol,Cross Layer Design
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 钱东平%张晋国
专业: 农业机械化工程
提交时间: 2010
摘要: 在奶牛养殖业中,奶牛个体信息、牛舍温湿度和牛舍氨气含量等参数的实时采集对奶牛场提高经济效益,强化管理有着重要的意义.在我国大部分中小型奶牛场,奶牛养殖完全靠饲养管理员观察来获得奶牛及牛舍相关信息,这就很难做到对所有奶牛个体及牛舍的实时监控,因而时常错过处理的最佳时机,极大地降低了奶农的经济效益.由大量的微型传感器作为节点构成的无线传感器网络能够实现对监测目标的实时监测,数据的采集和处理,并且能够自组织的进行协调和通信.与传统的有线或无线的监测系统相比,它具有监测范围大、安装方便、维护和更新费用低等优势,非常适合奶牛因走动而位置会发生变化甚至会脱离固定监测点的奶牛场通信系统设计.本文结合奶牛场的实际情况,利用无线传感器网络技术的优势,在深入分析无线传感器网络各节点功能特点和性能要求的基础上,提出了基于无线传感器网络技术的奶牛场数字化管理通信系统的总体方案;设计了奶牛养殖场无线传感器网络的硬件节点并编写了相应软件;在跨层设计技术的基础上结合奶牛场的实际情况对无线传感器网络的通信协议栈进行了进一步的研究.主要研究内容如下:1)在深入分析无线传感器网络的体系结构以及各节点功能特点和性能要求的基础上,结合奶牛场的实际情况,确定了奶牛场无线传感器网络的网络规划和整体的功能.2)根据网络的整体规划充分地分析了网络的功能需求,确定了硬件芯片.制作了奶牛场无线通信通用模块硬件电路,根据细化的功能初步研制了传感器节点、头节点和汇聚节点的硬件平台,并编写了相应的通信驱动软件.3)对无线传感器网络中典型的协议进行了研究和比较,在基于位置相对固定的无线传感器网络跨层设计技术的基础上进行了进一步的研究,提出了基于动态网络的跨层通信协议栈设计方案.将该通信协议栈设计方案应用于奶牛场无线传感器网络的各节点软件设计当中,验证了该方案的可靠性.4)分析试验中的影响因素,提出具体的安装和部署方案,最后对本系统进行实验室和奶牛场现场测试.结果表明,本系统可以用于奶牛场数字化管理的通信系统设计.
英文摘要: In the dairy farming industry, the real-time data acquisition of parameters that contain individual information of dairy cattle, temperature and humidity and ammonia level of cowshed has great significance, which is interesting for enhancing economic efficiency and strengthening management for dairy farms. In China, it is difficult to obtain the complete information of dairy cattle or cowshed by the administrator's observation for most small dairy farms, i.e., real-time monitor is difficult to come true for dairy farms. Thus, the optimum period of treatment is often missed, and then it makes economic benefits of dairy farmers decreased evidently. Wireless sensor network that is composed of a large number of micro sensor nodes can realize the real-time monitor, data collection and data treatment of monitor object, moreover can be self-organized coordination and communication. Compared with the traditional wire or wireless monitor system, wireless sensor network has the advantage of larger monitoring range, easier installation and lower cost of maintenance and upgrade, etc. Wireless sensor network is very suitable for dairy farms communication system, in which the sensor nodes often change position or even separate from the fixed monitoring sites because of dairy cattle's moving.In this paper, according to practical situation of the dairy farms, a general scheme of digital management communication system of dairy farms is put forward, which use the advantage of wireless sensor network and base on the analyzing of features and performance requirements of all various wireless sensor network nodes deeply. Hardware nodes of dairy farms'wireless sensor network are designed and corresponding software is developed. Communication protocol stack of dairy farms'wireless sensor network is further studied by applying the cross-layer design technology. The main contents of the dissertation are listed as follows:1) According to the actual situation of the dairy farms and the deeper analysis of the system structure and sensor nodes of wireless sensor network, network planning and global function of dairy farms'wireless sensor network are determined.2)According to the general scheme of network, function requirement of network is analyzed deeply. Thereby, the working frequency of wireless communication system and the hardware chips are decided. Universal module of dairy farms wireless communication system is developed. According to the different functions, the hardware platform of sensor node, head node and sink node and corresponding software are developed.3)This paper study and compare the typical communication protocol of wireless sensor network, then the cross-layer protocol stack design scheme of dynamic network is put forward, which based on cross-layer design of the relative fixed position network. In order to verify the reliability of this protocol, the scheme is applied to the design of dairy farms'wireless sensor network nodes.4)The scheme of installation and deployment is put forward by the analysis of influencing factors. Finally, the system is validated with laboratorial tests and field tests. The result shows that this system can be used in the communication system design of dairy farms'digital management.