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我国新型农村金融机构风险防范研究

标题: 我国新型农村金融机构风险防范研究
英文标题: Research on the Risk of New Rural Financial Institution in Our Country
作者: 王建英
出版时间: 2010-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 新型农村金融机构,层次分析法,运行风险,风险评价指标体系
英文关键词: The new rural financial institutions,Analytic Hierarchy Process,operating risk,risk evaluation index system
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 王秀芳%王建中
专业: 产业经济学
提交时间: 2010
摘要: 农村金融创新是我国农村经济发展的必然要求.从2004年起,我国政府连续三年的中央一号文件都提出要在农村金融体系中鼓励制度创新.2006年的中央一号文件中明确提出,鼓励在县域内设立多种所有制的社区金融机构,当年12月20日,中国银监会下发了《中国银行业监督管理委员会关于调整放宽农村地区银行业金融机构准入政策更好支持社会主义新农村建设的若干意见》,放宽农村地区银行业金融机构准入限制,至此,符合农村生产生活需要的新型农村金融机构在农民迫切期盼中、在国家政策的支持下应运而生.从2007年3月首家村镇银行-四川仪陇惠民村镇银行的成立到2009年末,遍布广大农村的新型农村金融机构数量规模已经达到了172家,其中村镇银行148家,贷款公司8家,农村资金互助社16家.三年中,这些金融机构吸收股金共计70亿元,吸收存款269亿元,贷款余额已达181亿元.其中农户贷款达5.1万户,贷款余额65.5亿元;小企业贷款5000万户,贷款余额91亿元,分别占贷款余额的36%和50.4%.新型金融机构的不断涌现以及业务的开展,在很大程度上缓解了农村资金流通渠道不畅、资金外流、农民资金需求得不到满足等多方面的压力,为促进县域经济和"三农"发展发挥了积极作用.然而,从近几年的运行情况来看,各地的新型农村金融机构所面临的风险不断加大,不论是经营者还是管理者,对其经营及管理风险还缺乏足够的认识,更没有建立有效的风险防范机制,这就使得新型金融机构的运行和持续发展潜伏着巨大的不确定性.因此,建立一个科学适用的新型农村金融机构风险评价指标体系,是预防和化解新型农村金融机构运行风险的关键,也是当前迫切需要解决的难题.本文以我国新型农村金融机构为研究对象,采用理论分析与实践分析相结合的方法,围绕我国新型农村金融机构发展现状以及风险特征,风险影响因素展开研究,并据以提出防范我国新型农村金融机构风险的对策与建议.文章首先系统地评述了具有代表性的金融机构风险理论作为研究的基础;然后,从新型农村金融机构数量、资金规模、效用发挥三个方面具体分析了我国新型农村金融机构的发展现状,分析表明我国新型农村金融机构数量发展迅速,资金规模不断扩大,效用发挥比较充分,然而与我国农村金融服务需求相比仍存在着很大的差距,与此同时,对我国新型农村金融机构面临的的风险及其特征做了详细的阐述;接着在查阅大量资料和调查分析的基础上,在遵循全面性、准确性、科学性、重要性和灵敏性原则下,运用层次分析法和专家打分法,将新型金融机构面临的风险影响因素指标进行分类并予以排序,构建新型金融机构风险评级指标体系.经分析表明,一级指标中新型农村金融机构的,内部影响因素是新型农村金融机构风险影响最大的因素,所占权重为0.667.在所选的影响新型农村金融机构风险全部二级指标中,发展能力排在首位,综合权重为0.2548,此外,政府部门、金融机构安全性、流动性、监管部门、资本充足性、赢利性、经济环境等因素对新型农村金融机构的风险影响程度也不可忽视;继而,介绍了国外微型金融机构风险管理模式以及对我国的启示;最后,结合我国新型农村金融机构的实际情况,并借鉴国外拉美国家小额贷款的成功经验,提出了防范新型金融机构运行风险的对策与建议.具体而言,论文的主要观点如下:从新型农村金融机构内、外影响因素两大方面着手:新型农村金融机构完善内部机制,加强内部控制,提高经营管理水平;银行监管部门强化监管资源,提高监管水平;政府在适当干预下的情况下,加大扶持力度,加强其职能.
英文摘要: Rural financial innovation is the inevitable requirement of the development of rural economy in China. Since 2004, the first file made by has put forward to encourage institutional innovation in rural financial system for three consecutive years. In 2006, the first file explicitly proposed to encourage the establishment of diversified ownership community financial institutions in county. On December 20th, 2006, the China banking regulatory commission (CBRC) issued a file named《Some Opinions made by the China Banking Regulatory Commission on Adjusting and Loosening access of Rural Banking Financial Institutions to support the Construction of New Socialist Countryside》,which loosed the access of rural banking financial institutions to rural areas. Then, the new type of rural financial institutions which meet living and production needs of farmers appeared with the expectation of farmers and support of policy. From March 2007 the first town bank around -- Yilong Huimin village Banks in Sichuan to the end of 2009, the quantity of new type of rural financial institutions has reached 172, including 148 town banks, 8 loan banks and 16 rural mutual cooperatives. By the end of 2009, the 172 new rural financial institutions, has absorbed capital totaling 70 billion RMB, deposits 269 billion RMB. And the loan balances has already amounted to 181 billion RMB, which included 5.1 million farmers loans, loan balances 65.5 million RMB, small business loans 50 million households, loan balances 91 million RMB. And the two kinds of loan balance respectively accounting for 36%and 50.4%.The development of the new financial institutions is helpful to solve many rural financial problems, such as the rural capital circulation channel unsmooth flow, capital outflow, rural capital needs can not being met and so on. And it has also played a positive role to promote the county economy and the development of "three agriculture". However, from the views of the operating conditions of the new type of rural financial institutions in recent years, its risks are increasing. But its managers and operators are lack of understandings on the operating and managing risks, and not to mention establishing effective risk control mechanism. In this case, it makes the operating and continuing development of the new type of rural financial institutions lie a tremendous uncertainty. Therefore, it is the key to establish a scientific and feasible new type of rural financial institutions risk evaluation index system, to prevent and dissolve the new rural financial institutions, and it also the urgent problem needs to solve. This paper makes the new type of rural financial institutions as its research object, and takes the method of theoretical analysis and practical analysis, to reach the development status, risk characters and influence factors, and then put forward a new type of rural financial institutions risk prevention countermeasures and suggestions.This paper first systematically reviewed the financial institution risk theories, which is the basis for research. And then, this paper analyzed the status of China's new rural financial institutions, from three aspects of the quality, fund size and the utility of new-type rural financial institutions. Analysis shows that the quality of China's new type of rural financial institutions has developed rapidly, the scale of funds has been expand, the utility has played a more fully effective. However, there still has been a big gap compared to the needs of rural financial services. Then, this paper made the details to the risk and Its features of new rural financial institutions. Based on the investigation and analysis of data access, and on the principles of comprehensive, accuracy, scientific, the importance and sensitivity, this paper used Analytic Hierarchy Process (ahp) and Expert Scoring Method, classify and sort the risk factors which the new financial institutions faced, build new financial institutions risk rating index system. The analysis shows that the internal factors of new type of rural financial institutions are the most influential factors to the risk of new type of rural financial institutions among the first level index, and the weight is 0.667. And among the second level index the development capacity is in the first place, and its comprehensive weight is 0.2548. In addition, the influence degree of government departments, financial institutions, security, liquidity, regulatory, capital adequacy, profitability, economic and environmental factors to the risk of new type of rural financial institutions should not be ignored. Then, this paper presented the model of foreign micro financial institutions risk management and its enlightenment to China's new rural financial institutions. Finally, combined with actual situations of new rural financial institutions and the successful experience of loans Latin American countries, this paper puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions to prev