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不同灌溉运筹措施对冬小麦-夏玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响

标题: 不同灌溉运筹措施对冬小麦-夏玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响
英文标题: Effects of Different Irrigation Strategies on Crop Yield and WUE in Winter Wheat-Summer Maize System
作者: 李瑞霞
出版时间: 2010-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 灌溉措施,冬小麦-夏玉米,产量,水分利用效率,表层土壤温度
英文关键词: Irrigation,wheat,maize,yield,WUE,soil temperature
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 梁卫理
专业: 作物栽培学与耕作学
提交时间: 2010
摘要: 本试验于2007-2010年在中国科学院栾城试验站进行.试验分两部分完成:第一部分是冬前不同灌溉处理(时期与次数)对冬小麦苗期生长发育的影响,设置四个处理,分别为:T1-抢墒播种+分蘖水;T2-抢墒播种+越冬水;T3-抢墒播种+分蘖水+越冬水;T4-抢墒播种.第二部分是玉米灌浆后期灌溉对玉米产量与冬小麦苗期生长发育的影响,设置两个处理,分别为:S1-夏玉米灌浆后期不灌溉;S2-玉米灌浆后期灌溉作为小麦底墒水.对土壤水分条件、作物生长状况、物质积累、产量及产量构成等各项指标进行了观测,比较了不同灌溉运筹措施对冬小麦产量和水分利用效率的影响.研究结果表明:(1)冬前灌越冬水和分蘖水增加了0~200cm土层的土壤含水量,使表层土壤温度降低了0.5~1.1℃.在冬前底墒充足的情况下,可以不进行灌溉;在底墒不足,冬前灌一水的情况下,可以灌分蘖水或灌越冬水.(2)分蘖期和越冬期灌溉有利于提高水分利用效率;冬前灌溉次数过多会降低水分利用效率;冬前不灌溉、充分利用土壤水有利于提高水分利用效率,但底墒不足时小麦产量较低.因此,应根据降水年型和土壤墒情灵活、合理安排小麦的灌溉方案,实现高产情况下水分的高效利用.(3)玉米灌浆后期灌溉对玉米略有增产作用,玉米套播比平播早5天,多利用积温115.8℃,增产显著,并且在小麦收割时对玉米幼苗的损伤较小.因此,可把两种措施结合起来应用于生产,实现玉米高产情况下水热资源的高效利用.(4)玉米灌浆后期灌溉增加了小麦苗期的底墒,有利于小麦整齐出苗,也促进了小麦分蘖的发生,提高了分蘖成穗率,为其高产稳产奠定基础.(5)玉米灌浆后期灌溉降低了玉米的水分利用效率;但是在全年作物产量上的水分利用效率降低较少.综上所述,本研究证明,在冬前底墒较好的情况下,冬前不同灌溉措施对小麦产量的影响不显著;夏玉米灌浆后期的灌溉处理对玉米产量的影响不显著,但使玉米产量有所提高;玉米套播提高了光能资源的利用效率,有利于玉米的高产稳产.
英文摘要: This study was carried out at the Luancheng Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, located in Hebei Province of China. The study consisted of two experiments: The first experiment was on four irrigation treatments before winter (dates and frequency) on winter wheat seedling growth and development. The four treatments were: (T1) one irrigationg at tillering; (T2) one irrigation before winter dormancy; (T3) one irrigation at tillering + irrigation before winter dormancy; (T4) no irrigatin before jointing. The second experiment was on the effects of late season irrigation during summer maize growth on grain yield and seedling growth and development of winter wheats. Treatments in the second experiment were: (S1) Control; (S2) One irrigation at late stage of grain filling during summer maize growth. Soil moisture condition, crop growth and deveperment, biomass accumulation, yield and yield components and other variables were observed or measured.The results show that:(1) Different irrigation treatments before winter increased 0 ~ 200cm soil layer's soil moisture, soil temperature decreased to 0.5 ~ 1.1℃.when water sufficient before winter, we can no irrigation. In the case of water shortage before winter and need one irrigation,we can irrigation at tillering or before winter dormancy.(2) one irrigationg at tillering and one irrigation before winter dormancy were improved WUE; Two irrigations before winter reduced WUE; No irrigation before jointing maked full use of soil moisture and improved WUE, but water storage before sowing reduced wheat yield. Therefore, in accordance with rainfall and soil moisture based flexible, reasonable arrangements for wheat irrigation scheme, to realized high efficient use water.(3) One irrigation at late stage of grain filling during summer maize growth and intercropping increased yield of maize. Intercropping more five days than flat planting and more used 115.8℃of accumulated temperature, increased significantly on yield, and less damaged on maize seedlings when the wheat harvest. Therefore, we can combine the two measures used in production, and increase yield of maize under low water efficiently.(4) One irrigation at late stage of grain filling during summer maize growth increased soil moisture of wheat seedling stage, and conducived regularity of wheat sowing, and the promotion of wheat tillers, increased the ear-bearing percentage of Tillers, lay the foundation for high and stable yield.(5) One irrigation at late stage of grain filling during summer maize growth reduced WUE of maize; but decreased less WUE on yield of crop.In summary, the case of the sufficient soil moisture in the before winter, effect of different irrigation treatments was not significant on yield. Late season irrigation treatments during summer maize growth was not significant on yield of maize.but had the potential for increased corn production. Interplant maize improved light utilization efficiency of resources, was beneficial to high and stable yield of maize.In the case of no sufficient soil moisture, effect of different irrigation treatments on wheat yield needs further study.