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水磷运筹对冬小麦群体物质生产特性和产量形成的影响

标题: 水磷运筹对冬小麦群体物质生产特性和产量形成的影响
英文标题: Effects of Irrigation Frequency and Phosphorus Application Rate on Biomass and Grain Yield of Winter Wheat
作者: 李云
出版时间: 2010-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 冬小麦,灌水次数,施磷量,群体质量,产量
英文关键词: winter wheat,irrigation frequency,phosphorus application amounts (rates),population characteristics,grain yield
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 李雁鸣%李瑞奇
专业: 作物栽培学与耕作学
提交时间: 2010
摘要: 为明确水分和磷肥运筹对高产冬小麦群体物质生产特性和产量形成的影响,分别于2007-2008年度(丰水年,全生育期降水218.8 mm)在保定市、2008-2009年度(平水年,全生育期降水102.2 mm)在藁城市选用当地冬小麦推广品种(河农822、冀5265)进行灌水次数和施磷量的两因素裂区试验,研究了不同灌水次数(在保证底墒基础上全生育期灌0、1、2和3水,分别用W0、W1、W2和W3表示)和施磷量(施P2O5 0、75和150 kg/hm2,分别用P0、P1和P2表示)对小麦群体质量性状和产量形成的影响.主要结果如下:1、两年度灌水次数对小麦总茎数的影响显著,W1、W2和W3的总茎数都显著高于不灌水的W0.但2007-2008年度W1、W2、W3之间差异不显著,2008-2009年度孕穗期以后W1显著低于W2、W3,W2、W3之间差异不显著.2个年度各生育时期不同施磷量水平的总茎数差异都不显著.2、2007-2008年度不同灌水次数干物质积累量的差异一般不显著,只有成熟期W3的干物质积累量最高,且显著高于不灌溉的W0,W1、W2、W3之间的差异不显著.2008-2009年度孕穗期以后W2、W3显著高于W0、W1,而W2、W3之间差异不显著.成熟期W2干物质积累量最高.2个年度不同施磷量水平孕穗期以后的干物质积累量差异也不显著.3、由于两年度分属不同降雨年型,降雨少的2008-2009年度灌水次数对LAI的影响比降水多的2007-2008年度显著.2007-2008年度在大部分生育时期不同灌水次数的LAI差异不显著,而2008-2009年度中后期差异都显著,均是W0W2>W3>W0,2008-2009年为W3≈W2>W1>W0.2年中施磷的P1和P2均显著高于不施磷的P0.但生育期间降水多的2007-2008年以施磷少的P1产量最高,降水少的2008-2009年以施磷多的P2最高.2年中W0和W1条件下都是P2的产量最高;W3条件下都是P1的产量最高;而W2条件下降水多的2007-2008年P1的产量最高,降水少的2008-2009年P2的产量最高.显示出磷素与水分的互补作用,即"水少磷多"或"水多磷少"都可以异途同归而实现高产.6、灌水和施磷均对小麦植株的氮、磷、钾积累量有促进作用,但促进效果受降水年型的影响.小麦生育期降水多的丰水年灌水次数对氮、磷、钾积累量的影响较小,平水年灌水次数对氮、磷积累量的影响显著,氮、磷积累量都随灌水次数增加而提高.施磷量对氮磷钾积累量的影响也受降水年型的影响而有所不同:2007-2008年对氮素和钾素积累量的影响不如2008-2009年显著,而2007-2008年施磷量对磷素积累量的影响比2008-2009年显著.养分生产效率也受降水年型的影响,适当灌溉和施磷量的小麦养分生产效率最高.7、不同年份不同灌水次数条件下小麦的耗水量差异显著,水分生产效率尽管2007-2008年各水平间差异显著,2008-2009年仅W0与W3之间差异显著,但两年都是W0>W1>W2>W3.由此可见,不同降水年型都可以通过减少灌水来提高水分生产效率.2个年度不同施磷水平的耗水量差异不显著;不同施磷水平的水分生产效率都随施磷量的增加而增大,但2007-2008年各施磷水平的差异不显著,2008-2009年差异显著.即降水较少年份可以通过增施磷肥来提高水分生产效率.综合本研究各灌水次数和施磷量组合的产量及群体、个体指标分析,就河北平原类似地区而言,在常年降水(小麦全生育期100 mm左右)条件下小麦全生育期灌溉2次,施P2O5 150 kg/hm2;丰水年份全生育期灌溉1次,施P2O5 75 150 kg/hm2,可以分别取得较理想的产量.
英文摘要: In order to clarify the effects of irrigation frequency and phosphorus application rate on population biomass and grain yield formation of winter wheat under water-saving conditions, two experiments were carried out during 2007-2008 (rich rainfall year, 218.8 mm during winter wheat growing period) in Baoding and 2008-2009 (moderate rainfall year, 102.2 mm during winter wheat growing period) in Gaocheng County with locally commecial winter wheat cultivar Henong 822 and Ji 5265 respectively. The experiments during the two winter wheat growing seasons were arranged as split plot arrangement, with irrigation frequency as main plots ( including 0, 1, 2 and 3 frequency during the growing period on the basis of suitable pre-sowing soil moisture, expressed as W0, W1, W2 and W3, respectively ), and phosphorus application rate as split plots (including P2O5 0, 75 and 150 kg/ha, expressed as P0, P1 and P2 respectively). The main results were summarized as follows:1. During the two years, irrigation frequency had significant effects on population culm number. The culm numbers of W1, W2 and W3 with irrigation were significantly higher than those without irrigation in W0. But the difference of culm numbers among W1, W2 and W3 was not significant during 2007-2008. The culm number of W1 was significantly lower than W2 and W3, but insignificant between W2 and W3 after booting during 2008-2009. The culm numbers among the three levels of phosphorus application rates were insignificant.2. The difference of dry matter accumulation among the four irrigation levels was generally insignificant during 2007-2008. Only the dry matter accumulation of W3 with irrigation was highest, and significantly higher than that without irrigation in W0 in maturity, and the difference of dry matter accumulation among W1, W2 and W3 was not significant. During 2008-2009, the dry matter accumulation of W2, W3 after booting stage was significantly higher than W0 and W1, but it was insignificant between W2 and W3. Dry matter accumulation of W2 was the highest in the four irrigation levels at maturity. During the two years, the effects of phosphorus application rates on dry matter accumulation was statistically insignificant after booting.3. The precipitation during the two growing years waa different. As a result, the difference of LAI among different irrigation levels during 2008-2009 with moderate rainfall was higher than that during 2007-2008 with rich rainfall. The difference of LAI among the four irrigation levels was not significant at most growing stages during 2007-2008, but it was significant at middle and late growing stages during 2008-2009, with the order W0W2>W3>W0 during 2007-2008, but W3≈W2>W1>W0 during 2008-2009. The grain