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冀北山地三种典型林分类型结构和生态功能研究

标题: 冀北山地三种典型林分类型结构和生态功能研究
英文标题: Research on the Structural Haracteristicsand Ecological Functions of Three Types Forest in North Mountain of Hebei Province
作者: 毕可姣
出版时间: 2012-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 冀北山地,林分结构,生态功能,健康经营
英文关键词: North Mountain of Hebei Province,Stand structure,Ecological function,Health management
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 杨新兵
专业: 生态学
提交时间: 2012
摘要: 本研究针对冀北山区防护林结构不合理、生态退化等关键区域问题,研究了冀北山区三种典型林分(落叶松桦木混交林、山杨桦木混交林和油松蒙古栎混交林)优势树种群落的主要林分结构和生态功能,为解决冀北生态林建设和林场林木生产经营的可持续发展提供参考.落叶松桦木混交林标准地有56种植物,山杨桦木混交林标准地有53种植物,油松蒙古栎混交林标准地有44种植物,落叶松桦木混交林是在天然次生林基础上的引针入阔林,所以落叶松的优势地位十分明显,灌木层的优势种毛榛和红瑞木,草本层种类很多,优势地位不是很突出,草本优势种有糙苏、山尖子和披针苔草.山杨桦木混交林优势树种是山杨和白桦,灌木层中毛榛的优势地位与其他物种相比很明显,草本层优势种有糙苏和类叶升麻.油松蒙古栎混交林的优势树种是油松和蒙古栎,灌木层的优势种是照山白和绣线菊,草本优势种有高山露珠草、披针苔草和小红菊.林分总蓄水能力是由地上部分持水量和土壤层持水量组成,林分总持水量越大,表明林分涵养水分的能力越强,在综合比较中发现土壤是森林水源涵养的主要场所.三种林分类型最大蓄水量比较中山杨桦木混交林(2289.79 t/hm2)>落叶松桦木混交林(1987.05 t/hm2)>油松蒙古栎混交林(1855.05 t/hm2).影响乔木层生物多样性指数最直观的因素是群落类型,不同群落的物种丰富度、多样性指数、均匀度存在较大的差异.群落总体分布比较均匀,群落的Menhinick丰富度指数相对偏低,Shannon-Weiner指数油松蒙古栎混交林大于山杨桦木混交林大于落叶松桦木混交林;灌木层生物多样性指数总体上油松蒙古栎混交林>山杨桦木混交林>落叶松桦木混交林;草本多样性指数同一林分中坡下>坡中>坡上,三种林分类型比较油松蒙古栎混交林>山杨桦木混交林>落叶松桦木混交林.乔灌草三种类型的比较重指数变化趋于一致.土壤中各种养分的含量变化没有明显的规律,但在实验测定值上整体水平较于华北土壤衡量标准普遍偏低.通过三种林分的标准地调查数据,从结构性、功能性和适应性三个方面8个指标运用层次分析法确定指标权重,结合复合结构功能指标法对三种林分进行综合比较,比较结果结果为落叶松桦木混交林在森林健康评价结果处于亚健康水平,山杨桦木混交林和油松蒙古栎混交林处于健康水平.三种林分类型在自然生长更新中都存在一定的问题,落叶松桦木混交林在林分结构落叶松优势地位明显,但没有幼苗更新且土壤养分含量偏低还需要人为干扰抚育经营;油松蒙古栎针阔混交林中油松和蒙古栎优势地位明显,伴生树种随机分布,且物种多样性指数油松蒙古栎针阔混交林总体要大于其他两个林分类型,群落成复层结构,被认为是冀北山地顶级森林群落结构.经营好这一群落类型可以其他的林分类型的森林经营提供依据.
英文摘要: In this paper, the main forest community structure and ecological function of three kinds of typical forest (Larix principic-rupprechtii-B.platyphylla-B.davurica、Populus davidian- B.platyphylla-B.davurica and Pinus tabuliformis -Quercus mongolica) were studied in north mountain of Hebei province, which included some key regional issues such as unreasonable shelterbelts structure、ecological degradation, so that it could provide reference of ecological forest construction and the sustainable development of forest management in north mountain of Hebei province.There are 56 kinds of plants in standards of Larix principic-rupprechtii-B.platyphylla-B.davurica, 53 kinds of plants in standards of Populus davidian- B.platyphylla-B.davurica, and 54 kinds of plants in standards of Pinus tabuliformis -Quercus mongolica. Larix principic-rupprechtii-B.platyphylla-B.davurica is needle into the broad-leaved forest which based on natural secondary forest, so the dominance of ten larch is obvious. The dominant species in shrub layer wool are hazel and cornus alba. Herb layer have many types, but the dominant position is not very prominent, the dominance species in herb layer are Phlomis umbrosa, Yama Mako and lanceolate carex. In Pobulus davidiana and Populus davidian- B.platyphylla-B.davurica the dominance species are aspen and birch. The dominance of wool hazel compared with other species is very obvious in shrub layer, and the dominance species in herb layer are brown and cohosh. The dominance tree species in Pinus tabuliformis -Quercus mongolica are Pinus tabuliformis and Quercus mongolica, the dominance species in shrub are Lespedeza bicolor and Spiraea.salicifolia, and the dominance species in herb layer including Ciraea.alpina,Carex.lanceolata and Dendranthema.chanetii.Total storage capacity of forest composed of that water holding capacity of the part on the ground and soil layer. The greater of the forest total storage capacity, the stronger of the forest water conservation capacity. In the comprehensive comparison, we can see that the main place of forest water conservation is the maximum water holding capacity of soil. In the comparison of three forest types, Pobulus davidiana and Populus davidian- B.platyphylla-B.davurica(2289.79 t/hm2)> Larix principic-rupprechtii-B.platyphylla-B.davurica(1987.05 t/hm2)> Pinus tabuliformis -Quercus mongolica(1855.05 t/hm2). The visual factor that effects the biological diversity index of tree layer is types of community. Different community have large difference in species richness, diversity index and evenness. The whole community is more evenly distributed, the Menhinick richness index of community is relatively low, the Shannon-Weiner index of Pinus tabuliformis -Quercus mongolica is greater than Populus davidian- B.platyphylla-B.davurica; about species diversity index of shrub layer that Pinus tabuliformis -Quercus mongolica > Populus davidian- B.platyphylla-B.davurica > Larix principic-rupprechtii-B.platyphylla-B.davurica; herb diversity index in the same forest the bottom of the slope >the middle of the slope >the tope of the slope, and in three forest types Pinus tabuliformis -Quercus mongolica > Populus davidian- B.platyphylla-B.davurica > Larix principic-rupprechtii-B.platyphylla-B.davurica. The index change tends to be consistent between tree、shrub and herb. The change of nutrients content in soil have no obvious regularity, but the experimentally determined values on the whole level is generally lower than soil standard in North China.Through the standard survey data to the three stands, from eight indicators of the structural, functional and adaptive three aspects, use Analytic Hierarchy Process to determine the index weigh, then combination to complex structure and function indicators make assessment to the three stands. The results of the assessment is Larix principic-rupprechtii-B.platyphylla-B.davurica at sub-health level, the mixed forest of Populus and Betula and the mixed forest of Pinus and Mongolicain at health level.The dominance of larch is obvious in the structure of Larix principic-rupprechtii-B.platyphylla-B.davurica, but there is no seedlings and soil needs management by human because it's low nutrient content. The dominance of Populus davidian- B.platyphylla-B.davurica and Pinus tabuliformis -Quercus mongolica, and it have the largest species diversity index compared with the other two forest types. It considered to be top structure of forest community in North Mountain of Hebei Province. We can see from diameter spectrum, pinus being in the growth state in tree diameter. It have benefit to increase forest reserves and seedlings. The good management of this kind of forest can provide a basis for other forest types.