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铁尾矿基质改良对植物光合生理特性及其生长的影响

标题: 铁尾矿基质改良对植物光合生理特性及其生长的影响
英文标题: The Study of the Effects of Iron Tailings Matrix Improvement on Plant Photosynthetic Physiological Characteristic and Growth
作者: 杜建云
出版时间: 2012-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 铁尾矿,基质改良,光合日变化,生物量
英文关键词: iron tailings,matrix improvement,diurnal changes of net photosynthetic rate,biomass
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 李玉灵
专业: 生态学
提交时间: 2012
摘要: 本研究通过在铁尾矿基质上满足水分要求,调节基质的pH值基础上,进行不同的掺土比例和施用不同量的化学肥料处理,进行栽植板栗、核桃、刺槐和紫穗槐等4个树种的盆栽试验,利用Li-6400便携式光合测定系统测定它们从早上7:00到晚上17:00的光合作用、蒸腾作用及水分利用率的日变化,并进行生物量和生长量测算,以此来确定不同处理对于树种生长状况的影响,通过对光合、生物量和生长量的统计分析,得出以下结论:1、板栗在全砂处理下生长最好,核桃是在半砂加二倍肥的处理下生长最好.2、刺槐和紫穗槐的净光合速率(Pn)基本为单峰曲线,峰值处在9:00~10:00,只有全砂基质下的刺槐呈现出双峰曲线,分别在10:00和15:00达到两个峰值,表现出明显的"午休"现象.3、刺槐和紫穗槐的气孔导度(Gs)日变化与净光合速率、蒸腾速率(Tr)日变化基本一致,体现了Pn对Gs具有指示调节作用.4、不同基质下的刺槐水分利用效率(WUE)日变化基本为"双峰"曲线,而紫穗槐WUE日变化均呈单峰曲线.5、刺槐和紫穗槐的各种光合生理参数在不同基质下的差异并不显著,因此可以在半土半砂甚至全砂基质下进行植被恢复.从经济效益的角度看,在进行矿山废弃地植被恢复中不必进行施肥.6、采用半土半砂适量施肥的处理方案最适合植物的生长.在尾矿上种植板栗核桃等作物,需要进行一比一掺土,合理施肥,并保持其能接受到充足的光照.考虑到投资成本,刺槐、紫穗槐可以直接种植在尾矿上,以达到固持、培肥土壤的作用.
英文摘要: This study was conducted in the botanical garden from the west campus of Agricultural University of Hebei, and local native species Castanea mollissima, Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia and Amorpha fruticosa were adopted as the experiment objects. By improving the soil matrix and observing the effect of different tailings matrix methods on the growth of the plants, we can explore the method matrix modified of mining wasteland and the mode of vegetation restoration which is low cost, easy to operate and good effect. This study had carried out many improvements methods on matrix of iron tailings in order to observe the impacts different substrate-improved methods of iron tailings on growth of economic tree species of Castanea mollissima and Juglans regia, and to determine the best substrates on the growth of economic tree species improvement in two ways, ultimately, ecological and economic benefits bumper ends. Li-6400 portable photosynthetic system was used in this study to accomplish the determination of the diurnal changes of photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiency from 7:00 to 17:00, in order to determine the effects of different treatments for the growth of two species. In order to disscuss effects of different iron tailings matrix improving methods on photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Robinia pseudoacacia and Amorpha fruticosa, the studies on diurnal change of photosynthetic characteristics of Robinia pseudoacacia and Amorpha fruticosa were also conducted, in order to find the best mode of abandoned mines'soil and vegetation restoration, and provide experimental basis for the further mining wasteland restoration. The results showed as followings:(1) The growth of Castanea mollissima in the sand of iron tailing is the best, and Juglans regia grown under half- sand and twice-times fertilizer is best.(2)The diurnal change of net photosynthetic rate(Pn) of Robinia pseudoacacia and Amorpha fruticosa mostly presented single-peak curves, the peak value occurred at 9:00-10:00. Only the sand matrix of Robinia pseudoacacia shows a double-peak curve, the first peak value occurred at 10:00 and the second one at 15:00, with midday depression of photosynthesis.(3)The diurnal course of stomatal conductance of Robinia pseudoacacia and Amorpha fruticosa exhibited also a similar diurnal course of photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate(Tr) simutaneously, and shown that Pn play instructions regulatory role on Gs.(4)The diurnal change of water use efficiency(WUE) in different matrix of Robinia pseudoacacia mostly presented double -peak curves, but Amorpha fruticosa all presented singel-peak curves.(5) All kinds of photosynthetic physiological parameters of two tree species in different matrix had no obvious difference, so we can implement vegetation restoration on half soil matrix even the whole sand matrix. From the economic point of view, in mining wasteland vegetation recovery, fertilization is unnecessary.(6)The experiment proved that the best method is to half mixed with soil and rational fertilizing, as well, making sure to have enough sunlight. Considering the costs, Robinia pseudoacacia and Amorpha fruticosa can directly be planted in the mine tailings,to achieve the retention of soil fertility.