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河北省孟滦林场主要森林类型结构特征及优化经营研究

标题: 河北省孟滦林场主要森林类型结构特征及优化经营研究
英文标题: Study on the Main Types of Forest Structure and Optimization of Management Measures of MengLuan Forest Farm in HeiBei Province
作者: 曹立颜
出版时间: 2010-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 主要林分类型,林分结构,更新特征,多样性特征,结构优化
英文关键词: stand density,site condition,Larix principis-rupprechtii,tree growth,diversity index
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 黄选瑞%李永宁
专业: 森林经理学
提交时间: 2010
摘要: 林分结构研究是森林结构经营的重要基础.本研究以河北省木兰林管局内的四种典型林分类型-山杨、白桦、柞树天然次生林,落叶松人工林,以及华北落叶松、白桦针阔混交林为研究对象,基于结构化经营理论与方法,利用2009年7-8月所调查的30块标准地资料,应用径阶株数分布直方图、Weibull分布及负指数分布函数及拟合检验方法,分析了不同林分类型的直径结构特征.利用混角度、角尺度、大小比数三个空间结构参数,分析了四种林分的树种隔离程度、水平分布特征及个体大小差异程度.以及其不同林分类型内更新及多样性特征,并在此基础上,提出了四种森林类型经营策略,结果表明:(1)四种林分类型中,林木径阶株分布为小径阶林木占多数,达68%.应用韦布分布及负指数分布描述各类型径阶株数与直径的关系,发现天然次生林大致呈现出倒J型的特征,且呈现出单峰、双峰以及多峰状的分布特点.对其进行拟合发现应用负指数分布拟合效果较理想.(2)林分空间分布中水平分布,呈现随机分布的特征.杨桦次生林、柞树次生林、落叶松人工林和针阔混交林平均角尺度,分别为0.3925、0.5425、0.4475和0.4925.树种间的隔离程度除了落叶松人工林外基本处于中度混交状态,其中杨桦次生林混角度最大为0.4700、柞树次生林为0.4125、针阔混交林为0.425.各林分类型的树种直径大小比数中最大的为针阔混交林为0.5275.最小的为杨桦次生林为0.3325,柞树次生林为0.4275,落叶松人工林为0.3400.(3)四种不同类型的林分更新状况不良,四种类型更新能力相比,落叶松人工林>针阔混交林>柞树次生林>杨桦次生林.(4)四种类型林分中针阔混交林的多样性较高,其Shannon-Wiener和Simpson指数最大,灌木分别为分别为1.3425和0.7577,草本分别为2.7519和0.8986.灌木Simpson和Shannon-Wiener指数最小的为落叶松人工林分别为0.8846和0.6389.草本Simpson和Shannon-Wiener指数最小的为柞树次生林分别为1.6817和0.7712.(5)根据不同林分类型结构特征,依据其目标结构及优化调整原则,对其林分结构进行优化.林分径级结构方面应根据异龄、混交的树种组成原则,使其径级曲线呈现倒J型的分布特征;对于空间结构的调整以水平随机分布、较高的混角度及复层结构为目标,综合考虑,调整林分的角尺度、混角度及大小比数.根据不同林分类型结构及生长特征分别采用天然及人工更新措施促进林分更新,同时以林分生态平衡为基础,合理处理林分结构及更新等关系,使其保持较好的生物多样性特征.通过对孟滦林场的主要类型的林分结构、更新及多样性特征的研究.依据其森林经营发展的目标状况,为其林分结构调整及经营实践提出调整各项结构特征的措施及理论基础,为优化其林分经营状况具有理论及现实意义.
英文摘要: Forest structure is an important part of stand characteristics, is the theoretical basis of forest management. Yanshan Mountains in the larger with the gradually increase of operating level, in production practice needs more overall stand size and space distribution information, diameter structure of stand, species composition, spatial location between trees have great contacts with the structure and function of the stand, and the reasonable stand structure is the basis of forests playing multi-function, on the stand structure of forest management and the optimal decision to have important theoretical and practical significance.In this article, as the research object to several different types of stand in Meng Luan forest farms in Hebei Province, including Populus davidiana-Betula platyphylla Secondary Forests, Oak Secondary Forests, Larix principis-rupprechtii plantations and conifer and broadleaved mixed forests. Analysis the species composition of various forest types, diameter structure of the basic structure of forest stands, based on the minimum structural unit from the diameter, species composition and spatial structure three parameters that is mingling, angle Index and neighborhood comparison. And starting from the update of different forest types and diversity study, doing on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the different types of stand structure characteristics. The results showed that:(1) In the four forest types, diameter class distribution of forest plants for the path-order trees line the majority, up to 68%. Application of Weibull distribution and the negative exponential distribution describe the relationship between the number of various types of diameter class and the diameter, and found the diameter distribution of all types of diversity. Natural secondary forest generally shows inverted J-type characteristics, however, the unreasonable stand structure there are still some unimodal, bimodal and multimodal-shaped curves. Found to fit them for the path-order more stands application the negative exponential distribution fit a good effect.(2) In the spatial structure of stand the horizontal distribution basically showed the characteristics of random distribution, the average angle Index of Populus davidiana-Betula platyphylla Secondary Forests is 0.3925, the average angle Index of Oak Secondary Forests is 0.5425, the average angle Index of Larix principis-rupprechtii plantations is 0.4475, the average angle Index of conifer and broadleaved mixed forests is 0.4925. The segregation between species in addition to Larix principis-rupprechtii plantations basic mixed in moderate condition, in which the maximum mingling of Populus davidiana-Betula platyphylla Secondary Forests is 0.4700, Oak Secondary Forests is 0.4125, conifer and broadleaved mixed forests is 0.425. In diameter ratio of the number of species of various forest types the largest is conifer and broadleaved mixed forests to 0.5275. Smallest is Populus davidiana-Betula platyphylla Secondary Forests to 0.3325, Oak Secondary Forests to 0.4275, Larix principis-rupprechtii plantations to 0.3400.(3) The stand update of four different types are poor, compared to the overall number of updates Larix principis-rupprechtii plantations>conifer and broadleaved mixed forests>Oak Secondary Forests>Populus davidiana-Betula platyphylla Secondary Forests. And the height are small, growth is not good. Under the other four types of stand diversity compared, Whether from the perspective of the shrub coverage height or richness and evenness. The diversity of conifer and broadleaved mixed forests are higher. Because Populus davidiana-Betula platyphylla and Oak Secondary Forests have poor operating conditions, the diversity is not very high. In Larix principis-rupprechtii plantations the diversity of herbal is higher, shrubs represent more inferior.Research on the Mengluan forest farms stand structure of main types, regeneration and diversity. According to their development objectives situation of the forest management, restructuring of its stand and practice management propose measures and theoretical basis to adjust the structural characteristics, for the optimization of operating conditions of its stand have theoretical and practical significance.