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枣缩果病的病害生理研究

标题: 枣缩果病的病害生理研究
英文标题: Path-Physiology Research of Jujube Fruit Shrink Disease
作者: 王丽丽
出版时间: 2011-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 枣缩果病,矿质元素,可溶性糖,还原糖,保护酶活性,酚类物质
英文关键词: Fruit shrink disease,Mineral element content,Soluble sugar,Reducing sugar,phenolic compounds
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 赵智慧%王文江%刘孟军
专业: 果树学
提交时间: 2011
摘要: 枣(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)为鼠李科(Rhamnaceae)枣属(Ziziphus Mill.)植物,是我国独具特色优势的重要果树,其果实营养成分丰富,有很高的药用价值;缩果病是当代枣产业中危害最严重的枣树病害,主要危害枣果,病原侵染枣果后,枣果变小果皮变色干缩,果肉海绵状坏死味苦,果柄离层致使果实早落.由于缩果病害的侵染,在河北太行山枣区、河南新郑枣区、山西晋中枣区等枣主产区,缩果病的病果率常达30%~80%,严重年份超过90%、甚至绝收,对我国枣产业造成严重危害.本研究旨在通过测定枣缩果病发病过程中的枣树土壤及果实中矿质元素和水分,以及果实中Vc、可溶性糖、酚类物质含量及抗氧化酶活性,分析缩果病发生过程中生理指标变化规律,探索缩果病发生的生理机制,从而为更好的预防及治疗枣缩果病提供科学依据.主要研究结果如下:(1)缩果病发病区土壤中K元素含量显著低于不发病区;Ca元素含量显著高于不发病区,在大部分发病区土壤中N、Fe、Mn、Cu、Zn和Mg含量较低.(2)在整个发育过程中发病区枣果中K元素低于不发病区,Ca含量高于不发病区.(3)不同发育期发病区的枣果Vc含量普遍低于不发病区;可溶性糖含量无显著差异;发病区的枣果在完熟期(发病后期)还原糖含量显著高于不发病区.(4)缩果病发病过程中,SOD活性、POD活性、O2·-产生速率和酚类物质在发病地区和不发病区枣果实中总的变化趋势相同.(5)缩果病发病过程中,SOD活性、POD活性和O2·-产生速率与发病程度呈正相关.有利于抗性种质的早期筛选.(6)土壤中施加K元素可以减轻缩果病发病情况,可大幅度减少产量损失.
英文摘要: The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (belongs to Ziziphus genus, Rhamnaceae family) is rich in nutritional and medicinal value. Jujube tree is an unique and important tree in our country, but because of all kinds of diseases and harm graveness, economic losses to our country are tremendous. The fruit shrink disease is mainly harmful to Jujuba fruit that getting smaller after being infected by pathogen, then pericarp shrinkage and pulp necrosis, fruit carducous at last. Due to fruit shrink disease infection, disease fruit rate reach to 30%-80%, most serious area exceed to 90%or even no crop in the main jujube producing county, such as Taihang mountain jujube area of Hebei, Xinzheng jujube area of Henan and Jinzhong jujube area of Shanxi. The-Fruit shrink disease caused serious damage to the jujube production.The aim of this study is analyzing the changing regularity of physical signs and probing physical mechanism of generating the fruit shrink disease by determining the mineral element and moisture content of soil and fruits, the content of Vc,soluble sugar and phenolic compounds and the ability of antioxidant enzyme in fruits during Fruit Shrink Disease, thus providing scientific proof for better prevention and cruing Fruit Shrink Disease. The major study result as follows:(1) The potassium content of the soil in fruit shrink disease area is significantly lower than normal area; The calcium content of the soil in fruit shrink disease area is significantly higher than normal area; The content of nitrogen, iron,manganese,copper,zinc and magnesium are slightly below normal area, and the difference is not significant.(2) The potassium content of the fruit in fruit shrink disease area is lower than normal area. The calcium content of the soil in fruit shrink disease area is significantly higher than normal area.(3) The Vc content of the fruit of different period in fruit shrink disease area is generally lower than normal area; The content of soluble sugar is no significant difference; The content of reducing sugar at full riening stage is significantly higher than normal area.(4) During the fruit shrink disease process, the variation trend in the ability of SOD and POD, production rate of O2·- and phenolic compounds of fruit between fruit shrink disease area and normal area keep the same.(5) During the fruit shrink disease process, the variation trend in the ability of SOD and POD, production rate of O2·- and phenolic compounds of fruit between fruit shrink disease area and normal area keep a positive correlation, whis is good for early screening of Resistant germplasmic.(6) To apply potassium fertilizer in soil can reduce the incidence of fruit shrink disease incidence and increase output of fruit.