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冀中南棉区种植密度和整枝方式对棉花群体质量的影响

标题: 冀中南棉区种植密度和整枝方式对棉花群体质量的影响
英文标题: Effect of Planting Densities and Pruned Methods on Population Quality of Cotton in the Central-South Region of Hebei
作者: 王志才
出版时间: 2011-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 棉花,密度,整枝方式,群体质量
英文关键词: cotton,density,pruned methods,population quality
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 李存东
专业: 作物栽培学与耕作学
提交时间: 2011
摘要: 以转基因抗虫棉-农大棉8号为研究材料,进行大田试验,常规整枝方式下设置6个栽培密度水平(1.5万株/hm2、3.3万株/hm2、5.1万株/hm2、6.9万株/hm2、8.7万株/hm2、10.5万株/hm2),简化整枝方式下设置3个栽培密度水平(3.3万株/hm2、5.1万株/hm2、6.9万株/hm2),共设9个处理.从群体质量角度研究了不同棉花群体之间指标的差异.结果表明:1随着种植密度的增大,棉花的株高和径粗均降低;相同密度下,整枝方式对株高和茎粗影响不大.2整个生育过程棉株地上部群体干物质的积累可以用Logisti方程拟合,高密度处理群体干物质量大于低密度处理,简化整枝处理大于常规整枝处理.高密度及留叶枝均能使干物质最大增长速率增大,出现时间提前5-11天,线性增长时间延长.3高密度和留叶枝均能提高群体最大LAI,并使群体最大LAI出现时间提前13天左右,LAI功能期延长.随密度的增大,相同果枝层次的LAI和透光率均下降.4棉铃在时间分布上,常规整枝处理随密度的增大伏前桃和秋桃比例升高,伏桃比例降低,与常规整枝处理相比,简化整枝处理的伏前桃和秋桃比例降低,伏桃比例升高.在空间分布上,常规整枝处理随密度的增大下部果枝铃比例升高;简化整枝处理随密度的增大叶枝铃比例降低,下部果枝铃比例升高;随密度的增大内围铃比例增高,外围铃比例降低.5节枝比和铃叶比均随密度的增加而降低,常规整枝处理大于简化整枝处理.最大节枝比和铃叶比均出现在1.5万株/hm2处理,分别为5.8和30.74个/ m2.6整个生育时期单株伤流量随密度的增加而降低,常规整枝处理伤流量呈双峰曲线变化,在盛花期和吐絮期各有一个峰值;简化整枝处理伤流量呈单峰曲线变化,只在盛花期有一个峰值.低密度常规整枝处理每个棉铃所占有根流量随生育时期逐渐降低,高密度常规整枝处理的则逐渐升高,简化整枝处理的呈倒"V"型变化.7主茎叶叶绿素含量呈单峰变化,盛花至结铃期达最大值,常规整枝处理含量大于简化整枝处理,高效叶与低效叶叶绿素含量差异不显著,密度对叶绿素含量影响不大.主茎叶可溶性蛋白含量在盛蕾期含量最大,整枝方式对蛋白含量影响不显著,对位有铃或无铃的叶片蛋白含量无差异.8主茎叶可溶性糖含量在盛蕾期最大.密度及整枝方式对可溶性糖含量影响不显著.高效叶可溶性糖含量显著低于低效叶.主茎功能叶光合速率变化呈单峰曲线,在盛花期达最大值,处理间光合速率差异不显著.高效叶光合速率显著大于低效叶.9常规整枝处理的籽棉产量随密度的增大先增加后降低;简化整枝处理籽棉产量随密度的增大而降低.简化整枝处理与常规整枝处理相比,在低密度时表现增产,高密度时表现减产.最高籽棉产量为3542.9㎏/hm2,出现在6.9万株/hm2常规整枝处理,密度为3.3万株/hm2的简化整枝处理籽棉产量为3504.3㎏/hm2.密度及整枝对纤维品质的影响不大.密度及整枝方式对各群体质量指标均有影响,在不同密度群体中,各群体质量指标中只有群体铃数与籽棉产量达显著正相关,其它群体指标之间存在相互制约关系,在不同群体中有其相对最适值.
英文摘要: Using insect-resistant transgenic cotton Nongdamian 8 as material, six planting densities levels (1.5,3.3,5.1,6.9,8.7,10.5*104 plants /hm2) with conventional pruning treatment and three densities levels (3.3,5.1,6.9*104 plants /hm2) with simplification pruning treatment were conducted. Some population indice were studied to reveal the effects of planting densities and pruned methods on population quality of cotton.. The results showed that:1 Plant height and stem diameter decreased with the increase in planting densities. At the same planting density, the pruned methods has no obvious effect on plant height and stem diameter.2 Dry matter accumulation of the aerial part of cotton at the whole stage was well fitted by the logistic equation. The whole dry matter accumulation in group of high density is more than that in group of low density, and more in group with conventional pruning than that with simplification pruning. High density and simplification pruning can increase the maximum growth rate of drymateer accumulation, make it appear 5-11 days early and extend its duration.3 High density and simplification pruning can boost the maximum leaf area index, make it appear 13 days earler than other treatments and extend its function period. Light intensity decreased with the increase of planting density.4 On the time distribution of bolls, with the density increased, the pre-summer boll ratio and autumn boll ratio increased and the summer boll ratio decreased in conventional pruning treatment. The pre-summer boll ratio and autumn boll ratio is lower and the summer boll ratio is higher in simplification pruning treatment than that in conventional pruning treatment. On spatial distribution of the bolls, as the density increased, the medium-inferior boll ratio increased and the ratio of the bolls in nourishing shoot decreased. High density and simplification pruning promote the bolling center shift to the under parts. As the density increased, internal surround boll ratio increased and the external boll ratio decreased.5 Both the ratio of fruit nodes to brances and the ratio of bolls to leaf area decreased as the density increased, and it was higher in conventional pruning treatment than that in simplification pruning treatment. Both the maximum value of the ratio of fruit nodes to brances and the ratio of bolls to leaf area appear in the treatment with the planting density of 1.5*104 plants /hm2, the maximum value are 5.8 and 30.74 / m2 respectively. 6 The amount of roots wound flowing decreased with the increase of planting density. The curve of roots wound flowing in conventional pruning treatment had two peaks, one occured at full-bloom stage, the other occured at boll opening stage. The curve of roots wound flowing in simplification pruning treatment had only one peak, which occured at full-bloom stage. The wound flowing occupied by each boll was less in conventional pruning treatment for dates when the planting density was lower and more for date when the planting density was higher, and it changed as low-high-low in simplification pruning treatment.7 The chlorophyll content of the main stem function leaf changed in single peak trend at different stages. The chlorophyll content reached the maximum value at the stage between full flowering and bolling when that of conventional pruning treatment was higher than that of simplification pruning treatment. The influence of densities on chlorophyll content was small. The soluble protein of the main stem function leaf reached the highest at the prosperous bud stage, and intended to decrease with the densities rising. But there were no significant differences in the soluble protein content of the main stem function leaf under different densities or pruned methods. Also, there were no significant differences between the soluble protein content of efficient leaf and that of inefficient leaf.8 The content of total soluble sugar in the main stem function leaf reached the maximum value at the prosperous bud stage. The density and pruned methods had little influence on the content of total soluble sugar. The content of total soluble sugar in efficient leaf were significantly lower than that in inefficient leaf. The net photosynthesis rate of leaf of main stem have one peak at the full flowering stage, and it was no significant difference among desity treatments and pruned methods treatments. But the net photosynthesis rate of efficient leaf were significantly higher than that of inefficient leaf.9 With the increase of planting desity, the seed cotton yield ascended first and then descended under conventional pruned methods, while descended under simplification pruning treatment. Compared with the conventional pruning treatment, remain leafy shoot can produces higher yield when the density is lower and produces lower yield when the density is higher. The maximum yield of cotton is 3542.9㎏/ hm2 which appears in the conventional pruning treatment with the 6.9*104 plants/hm2d