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高山杜鹃花芽分化及生理生化特性的研究

标题: 高山杜鹃花芽分化及生理生化特性的研究
英文标题: Study on Flower Bud Differentiation and Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Rhododendron Hybrides
作者: 李倩
出版时间: 2009-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 高山杜鹃,花芽分化,生理生化
英文关键词: Rhododendron hybrides,flower bud differentiation,physiology and biochemistry
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 肖建忠
专业: 园林植物与观赏园艺
提交时间: 2009
摘要: 花芽分化是植物成花的基础.本试验以高山杜鹃不同花期的3个品种为试材,研究其花芽分化的形态发育过程和花芽分化过程中生理生化的变化,探讨高山杜鹃花芽分化的生理机制,以期为生产中,提高高山杜鹃花卉品质和调控高山杜鹃花期提供理论参考.主要研究结果如下: 1.高山杜鹃花芽形态分化可分为五个时期,即花芽分化初期、萼片分化期、花瓣分化期、雄蕊分化期和雌蕊分化期. 2.6月中旬(花芽分化期)是株高变化的分界点.此前3个品种的株高迅速增长,6月中旬后趋于稳定.展开叶片数和开展度也表现出同样的规律. 3.花芽分化期间,3个品种干物质含量变化趋于稳定.花芽分化后随着生殖生长开始,叶片干物质不断地向生殖器官转移从而其含量逐渐下降. 4.花芽分化过程中叶片可溶性糖、淀粉和蛋白质含量均呈现先升后降再回升的曲线变化.在高山杜鹃由营养生长转入生殖生长的过程中,叶片中可溶性糖、淀粉和蛋白质含量呈上升态势,于花芽生理分化期达到最高值,此后花芽开始形态分化,可溶性糖、淀粉和蛋白质含量明显下降,直到花芽分化结束后3个品种可溶性糖、淀粉和蛋白质含量有所回升. 5.花芽分化过程中3个品种叶绿素含量的变化规律基本一致,都是在花芽分化开始前上升,花芽发端开始后稍有停滞、随之保持基本稳定的曲线变化. 6.叶片内过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)和苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)的活性呈"双峰"曲线变化. 7.未成花植株叶片中可溶性糖、淀粉和蛋白质含量在花芽分化期间整体处于比较低的水平,POD、PPO和PAL三种酶在花芽分化过程中活性呈现先升高后降低的趋势,但均处于一个比较低的水平,从而得出高山杜鹃花芽分化期间高含量的可溶性糖、淀粉和蛋白质,相对较高的POD、PPO和PAL活性水平可能对高山杜鹃的花芽分化有利. 8.高山杜鹃在花芽分化前可溶性糖含量、叶绿素含量增加,说明这些指标有利于花芽发端.结合切片观察到的结果,可以确定早花品种花芽分化临界点在6月1日到6月15日,中花品种花芽分化临界点在6月15日到6月30日,晚花品种花芽分化临界点在6月30日至7月15日.因此,为确保高山杜鹃的花质和花量,应根据其品种特点适时采取栽培管理措施以充分满足营养物质代谢需求:在花芽分化前,给与充足的水分,施肥以氮肥为主,促进营养物质的积累;花芽发端即将开始之际应适当控水,施肥以磷钾肥为主,使植物及时向生殖生长转化.
英文摘要: Flower bud differentiation is the basis of flowering. Rhododendron hybrides at different blossoming stages was chosen as the material. In order to explore the potential physiological mechanisms of flower bud differentiation of Rhododendron hybrides to provide theoretical references for improving flowers\'' quality and regulationing florescence of Rhododendron hybrides in production, the morphological characteristics and the physiological and biochemical changes in the process of flower bud differentiation were studied in the dissertation. The main results were as follows:1.The process of flower bud differentiation of Rhododendron hybrides included five phases: initial differentiation stage, sepal differentiation stage, petal differentiation stage, stamen differentiation stage and pistil differentiation stage.2.Flower bud differentiation at the middle of June is the demarcation point of change of height. Change of height of 3 varieties increased rapidly before the middle of June, after that time change of height tended to be stable. Numbers of spreading leaves and the angles of divergence released the same regularity.3.Change of dry matter content of 3 varieties tended to be stable during flower differentiation perod. With the beginning of reproductive growth, dry matter transfered constantly to reproductive organs, thus content of dry matter gradually decreased.4.With the process of the flower formation, the content of soluble sugar, starch and protein increased at the very beginning, then declined, and partially returned in the end. During the transfer from vegetation growth to reproduction growth of Rhododendron hybrides, the content of soluble sugar, starch and protein were in an increasing state, reaching to the peaks in the flower bud physiological differentiation period. During flower bud morphological differentiation, the content of soluble sugar, starch and protein decreased sharply, and then partially returned until the end of flower bud differentiation.5.The change law of contents of chlorophyll of 3 varieties was basically identical during flower differentiation perod. Contents of chlorophyll all increased before flower bud differentiation, then stasised slightly during flower bud initiation, and kept stable thereupon. 6.The activities of POD, PPO and PAL in leaves showed a double-peak curve.7.The content of soluble sugar, starch and protein in leaves of those plants whose flower bud hadn''''t formed were all at a relatively low level during flower differentiation perod. In the stage of flower bud differentiation, the activities of POD, PPO and PAL increased at first and then declined. But they were all at a relatively low level. From the above, we can draw a conclusion that a large number of solubility sugar, starch and protein, relatively high reactive level of POD, PPO and PAL might be favorable to the flower bud formation of Rhododendron hybrides.8.The contents of soluble sugar and chlorophyll increased before flower bud differentiation, indicating these indexes are favorable to flower bud initiation of Rhododendron hybrides. According to the observations of the paraffin section, it is found that the critical point of flower bud differentiation of the early-blooming type is between June 1st and June 15th; the mid-blooming type is between June 15th and June 30th; and the late-blooming type is between June 30th and July 15th. In order to ensure the flower quality and quantity of Rhododendron hybrides, according to variety characteristics we should take cultivation and management measures timely, in order to meet the demands of nutrient metabolism: enough water and a complete fertilizer with N-fertilizers being dominant are need for promoting nutritious substances accumulation before flower bud differentiation; when flower bud initiation of Rhododendron hybrides will soon be started, we should control water properly and apply fertilizer with phosphorus potassium being dominant, to ensure the transformation from vegetative growth to reproductive growth timely.