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分区交替灌溉下梨树的生物学反应及水分高效利用研究

标题: 分区交替灌溉下梨树的生物学反应及水分高效利用研究
英文标题: Studies on Biological Reaction and the High Efficient Use of Water of Pear under Alternative Area Irrigation
作者: 赵志军
出版时间: 2005-01-01
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 皇冠梨,分区交替灌溉,生物学反应,水分利用效率
英文关键词: "Huangguan"Pear,Alternative Area Irrigation,Biological Reaction
论文级别: 硕士
学位: 学位论文
导师: 张玉星
专业: 果树学
提交时间: 2005
摘要: 果树生产节水栽培在我国具有广泛的应用前景,对农业生产的可持续发展具有重要意义.本研究以田间成龄皇冠梨树和盆栽皇冠梨幼树为试材,旨在通过在果树水分管理中改进灌溉方式采用分区域交替灌溉方式即减少灌溉量的条件下,研究树体营养生长和生殖生长、产量、果实品质以及树体生理指标的变化,从而提出以果树生物学反应为依据的果树节水栽培管理制度,为发展节水型果树生产提供理论依据.试验结果表明:1.田间条件下分区交替灌溉的花朵座果率达到88.3%,对座果率无显著影响,可以满足果树生产的需要.2.分区交替灌溉较常规灌溉显著抑制了树体的营养生长量,田间条件下新梢长度减低了18.98%,夏季修剪量减少了33.3%.盆栽条件下分区交替灌溉较全盆灌水和固定灌水根冠比量大,达到1.196,与全盆灌水差异显著,而根的数量无明显差异.3.田间分区交替灌溉不影响花芽的形成,与常规灌溉无显著差异,可以满足果树生产队花芽数量的要求.盆栽条件下交替灌水处理形成的花芽数量多,达到7.75个/株,全盆灌水处理形成的花芽数量少,仅为3.00个/株,两者之间差异显著.4.从光和速率和蒸腾速率分析,田间分区交替灌溉和盆栽分区交替灌水与其他灌溉方式比较WUE最高,分别为4.06和7.50,与常规灌溉和全盆灌水差异显著.5.从田间试验分析,分区交替灌溉和盆栽分区交替灌水与常规灌溉无明显差异,干物质含量和可溶性固形物含量显著高于常规灌溉,果实硬度无显著差异,含酸量显著低于常规灌溉,灌溉水生产效率(WUEI)为39.58/m3,显著高于常规灌溉.6.果树管理中实施分区交替灌溉在皇冠梨生产中应用是可行的,WUE高,这为皇冠梨节水栽培提供了一条新的途径.??
英文摘要: Water-saving irrigation has very great potential for applying in the future in China,and it is very important for the continuous-development of agriculture.In order tu study the effect of Alternative Area Irrigation(AAI) on the growth and cropping of "Huangguan"(Pyrus bretschneiedri Rehd cv.Huangguan) pear ,AAI was imposed to mature trees in orchare and young trees planting in pot.In this experment,the trees' changes in shoot growth,leaf area,setting-fruit ratio,flowr bud quantity,yield,fruit,quality,photosynthesis(Pn),transpiration(Tr)and water use efficiency(WUE) were investigated.The water-saving irrigation system that relys on pear's biological reaction will be proposed and it brings up principle ground for developing water-saving production.The main results were as follows:1.The setting-fruit ratio of AAI treatment was 88.3% and it could meet the requirement of production.2.AAI in orchard was markedly reduced shoot growth by 18.98% and summer pruning by 33.3% to compare with conventional area irrigation(CAD).The AAI treatment in pot was markedly decreased trees growth,and its root-top ratio was increased by 1.196 than CAI,and its root quantity was level to CAI.3.AAI didn't influence differentiaton of flower bud,and it could meet the requirement of production compared to CAL in orchard.But planting in pot,AAI was markedly higher than CAI by 7.75 per young tree.4.Analysis the Pn and Tr of different irrigation treatments,the WUE(Pn/Tr) of AAI of mature and young trees were 4.06 and 7.50 ,which is obviously higher than that of CAI. 5.The per fruit weight and yield of AAI was not markedly different than that of CAI.The dry matter conttent and soluble solid content of AAI treatment were dramatically higher than that of CAI.The firmness of fruit was not affected by AAI.Results should that to compare with CAI,the fruit acid content of AAI was markedly edcreased, the irrigation water use efficiency was dramatically increased by 39.58kg/m3. 6.It is possible to be treated Alternative Area Irrigation on the "Huangguan"pear,its water use efficiency is high.It can be a new water-saving method for "Huangguan" pear culture.??