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核桃楸砧木对‘绿岭’生理特性及坚果产质量的影响

标题: 核桃楸砧木对‘绿岭’生理特性及坚果产质量的影响
英文标题: Research on the Effects of Juglans Mandshurica Maxim as Rootstock on Some Physiological Characteristics and Quality of ‘lvling' J. Regia L.
作者: 郝梁丞
出版时间: 2015-05-31
所在大学: 河北农业大学
关键词: 核桃,‘绿岭’,核桃楸,嫁接,生理特性,坚果品质
英文关键词: Juglans regia L.,'Lvling',Juglans mandshurica Maxim,Graft,Physiological characteristics,Kernel quality
论文级别: doctor
学位: 博士
导师: 李保国;齐国辉
专业: 森林培育学
主题: 核桃楸砧木对‘绿岭’生理特性及坚果产质量的影响
页码: 86
分类号: S664.1
摘要: 为充分利用太行山广泛分布的核桃近缘树种野生核桃楸资源,扩大‘绿岭’核桃的种植范围,以太行山深山区的自然分布的核桃楸为试材,以生产上常用的核桃砧木为对照,研究了核桃楸砧木对‘绿岭’核桃生理特性和果实品质的影响。主要结果如下:(1)以插皮接在核桃楸砧木与核桃砧木上嫁接‘绿岭’的成活率分别为84%、83%,嫁接当年新梢生长量分别为94.2 cm与93.5 cm,新梢基径分别为2.4 cm与2.5 cm,平均发枝量分别为1.67与1.89,均无显著差异;以方块形芽接在核桃楸砧木与核桃砧木上嫁接‘绿岭’的成活率分别为88%与90%,新梢生长量分别为50.5 cm与54.3 cm,新梢基径分别为0.91 cm与0.98 cm,均无显著差异。(2)核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’核桃的雄花芽和混合花芽膨大期均比核桃砧木的晚5 d,混合花芽开绽期晚6 d,雄花芽快速伸长期和混合花芽展叶期均晚3 d。核桃楸砧木与核桃砧木的‘绿岭’萌芽率分别为77.19%、87.13%,两者差异极显著;长枝比例分别为54.76%与74.19%,中枝比例分别为38.10%与12.90%,差异极显著;短枝比例分别为7.14%与12.90%,差异显著。核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’核桃叶片的POD酶活性为19.65μg?g-1FW,核桃砧木‘绿岭’核桃叶片的POD酶活性为15.28μg?g-1FW,两者差异极显著。(3)核桃楸砧木和核桃砧木‘绿岭’核桃休眠期的混合花芽芽体中的GA3含量分别为5.67μg·g-1和7.52μg·g-1,差异极显著;花芽膨大期的混合花芽芽体中的GA3含量分别为7.07μg·g-1和8.75μg·g-1,差异极显著,IAA含量分别为1.95μg·g-1、2.26μg·g-1,差异显著,ABA含量分别为1.39μg·g-1和0.73μg·g-1,差异显著。开绽期两种砧木‘绿岭’核桃GAIAA、ABA含量均无显著性差异。(4)核桃楸砧木与核桃砧木‘绿岭’核桃叶片N、P元素含量的变动趋势相近,均呈先高后低而后稳定的趋势,但在有些时期,两种砧木之间的含量差异达到显著水平。核桃楸砧木与核桃砧木‘绿岭’核桃叶片含K量的变化趋势略有不同,核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’核桃叶片中含K量的变化趋势为先高后低并趋于稳定,核桃砧木的呈现先降后升的变化趋势。两种砧木‘绿岭’核桃新梢组织含N量年变化均呈先下降后升高的趋势。两种砧木‘绿岭’核桃新梢组织含P量年变化均呈先下降后升高再下降的趋势。两种砧木‘绿岭’核桃新梢组织中含K量年变化均呈先下降后升高再下降的趋势。两种砧木‘绿岭’核桃1 a枝条含N量年变化均呈先下降后升高再下降的趋势。两种砧木‘绿岭’1a枝条含P量年变化均呈先下降后升高的趋势。两种砧木‘绿岭’1 a枝条含K量年变化均呈下降趋势。(5)核桃楸砧木与核桃砧木‘绿岭’叶片中叶绿素a、叶绿素b、总叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量年变化均呈先升高后降低的趋势,最高值集中出现在6月、7月、8月。两种砧木‘绿岭’叶片花青素含量年变化呈先迅速下降后缓慢上升的趋势,4月、7月,核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’叶片中花青素含量分别为807.27 nmol·g-1、240.07 nmol·g-1,极显著高于核桃砧木的329.04 nmol·g-1、146.41 nmol·g-1。(6)两种砧木‘绿岭’叶片光合速率日变化均呈现先升高再降低的趋势,核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’叶片在13:00~15:00光合速率为19.16μmol/(m2·s),显著低于核桃砧木的22.23μmol·(m2·s)-1;两种砧木‘绿岭’叶片蒸腾速率日变化呈先升高后下降的趋势,核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’叶片蒸腾速率在10:00~12:00,12:00~13:00两个时段分别为1.55 mmol·(m2·s)-1与1.48 mmol·(m2·s)-1,核桃砧木的分别为2.31 mmol·(m2·s)-1与2.25 mmol·(m2·s)-1,差异极显著。与核桃砧木相比,核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’叶片Fm、Fv、Fm’、Fv/Fm、q P、Etr等荧光动力学参数均稍显下降,F0在选取的6个时间定测定值均未出现显著性差异,Fs值6:00~8:00显著高于核桃砧木,其它时间没有显著差异。(7)核桃楸砧木与核桃砧木‘绿岭’单株产量分别为2.8 kg和2.2 kg,单果重分别为13.5 g和12.2 g;果实纵径分别为3.914 cm与3.308 cm,横径分别为3.269 cm和4.039 cm;果形指数分别为1.199和0.819;青皮率分别为60.22%和52.87%;均差异极显著。壳厚分别为0.102 cm和0.082cm,差异显著。出仁率分别为59.28%和65.44%;脂肪含量分别为604 mg·g-1和642 mg·g-1;可溶性蛋白含量分别为19 mg·g-1和11 mg·g-1,均差异极显著;总蛋白质含量无显著差异。核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’核桃仁中Ca含量分别为2.218 mg·g-1,极显著高于核桃砧木的1.877 mg·g-1,Mg、Zn的含量分别为2.095 mg·g-1、0.026 mg·g-1,均显著高于核桃砧木的1.837 mg·g-1、0.022mg·g-1,Mn含量为0.025 mg·g-1,极显著低于核桃砧木的0.039 mg·g-1。核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’核桃仁中淀粉含量为32.97 mg·g-1,极显著高于核桃砧木的20.23 mg·g-1;总糖含量为102.53 mg·g-1,极显著高于核桃砧木的94.44 mg·g-1;还原糖含量为84.81 mg·g-1,显著低于核桃砧木的88.81 mg·g-1。核桃楸砧木与核桃砧木‘绿岭’核桃仁中均含有棕榈酸、硬酯酸、油酸、亚油酸、花生酸、顺-11-二十碳一烯酸和α-亚麻酸等7种脂肪酸,其中,含量最高的为亚油酸,含量最低的为花生酸。核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’核桃仁中不饱和脂肪酸含量比例与核桃砧木的相同,均为92%,而多不饱和脂肪酸比例与必需脂肪酸含量比例为75%,极显著小于核桃砧木的80%;单不饱和脂肪酸比例为17%,极显著大于核桃砧木的12%。核桃楸砧木与核桃砧木‘绿岭’核桃仁中均含有18种氨基酸,其中,核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’核桃仁中的亮氨酸、缬氨酸、异亮氨酸、苏氨酸、色氨酸、蛋氨酸等6种必需氨基酸的含量分别为14.021mg·g-1、8.756 mg·g-1、6.999 mg·g-1、6.098 mg·g-1、5.820 mg·g-1、1.459 mg·g-1,精氨酸、天冬氨酸、丙氨酸、脯氨酸等4种非必需氨基酸含量分别为34.707 mg·g-1、20.627 mg·g-1、7.732 mg·g-1、5.759 mg·g-1,均极显著高于核桃砧木的。核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’的核桃仁中人体必需氨基酸所占比例为30.30%,极显著高于核桃砧木的29.11%;儿童必需氨基酸所占比例为20.34%,极显著高于核桃砧木的18.51%。与核桃砧木的相比,核桃楸砧木‘绿岭’核桃的生理特性差异不大,果实品质无明显下降,且可溶性蛋白、微量元素、氨基酸等指标优于核桃砧木的。因此认为,核桃楸可以作为‘绿岭’的一种砧木,在生产上推广应用。
英文摘要: In order to make full use of Juglans mandshurica Maxim which is a J. regia L.'s close sib and widely distributed in Taihang mountain.Also to expand the the scope of the 'Lvling' walnut planting, Some physiological characteristics and quality of ‘Lvling' grafted onto Juglans mandshurica distributed in Taihang mountain were studied in this paper and that grafted onto Juglans regia L. as control.The results were as below.(1)The grafting survival rates of‘Lvling'by barking graft onto J. mandshurica and J. regia rootstock were 84% and 83%, the shoot lengths were 94.2 cm and 93.5 cm, the shoot diameters were 2.4 and 2.5 cm, and the average shoot numbers were 1.67 and 1.89 respectively. All of these items did not have significant difference between the two rootstocks.(2) Compared to be grafted onto J. regia, the ‘Lvling'expending periods of male and female flower bud grafted onto J. mandshurica delayed 5 days, and the open period of female flower bud delayed 6 days. The rapid extension period of male bud and the leafing period of female bud delayed 3 days. Sprouting rates of ‘Lvling'being grafted onto J. mandshurica and J. regia rootstock were 77.19 % and 87.13 % respectively, and there had very significant difference between them. The long branch rates of ‘Lvling'being grafted onto J. mandshurica and J. regia rootstocks were 54.76 % and 74.19 %, and those of the medium branch rates were 38.10 % and 12.90 % respectively. There had very significant differences between the two rootstocks on the long branch and medium branch rates. The short branch rates of ‘Lvling'being grafted onto J. mandshurica and J. regia rootstocks were 7.14 % and 12.90 %. There had significant difference between the two rootstocks. The ‘Lvling'leaf POD activity being grafted onto J. mandshurica rootstock was 19.65 μg?g-1FW, while onto J. regia rootstock was 15.28μg?g-1FW, and there had very significant difference between the two rootstocks.(3) In dormant period, the GA3 contents in female bud tissue of ‘Lvling'being grafted onto J. mandshurica and J. regia were 5.67 μg·g-1 and 7.52 μg·g-1, and there had very significant difference between them. In expending period, the GA3 contents in female bud tissue of ‘Lvling'being grafted onto J. mandshurica and J. regia were 7.07 μg·g-1and 8.75 μg·g-1, and there had very significant difference between them, while the IAA contents in female bud tissue of ‘Lvling'being grafted onto J. mandshurica and J. regia were 1.95 μg·g-1and 2.26 μg·g-1, and there had significant difference between them, and the ABA contents in female bud tissue of ‘Lvling'being grafted onto J. mandshurica and J. regia were 1.39 μg·g- and 0.73 μg·g-1, and there had significant difference between them. In open period of female flower bud period, there had no significant differences between them on the GA3, IAA and ABA contents.(4) There was no significant differences on the changing trends of ‘Lvling'leaf N and P contents(high for early period and low for later period and then stable) being grafted onto J. mandshurica rootstock and J. regia rootstock. However, there had significant differeces at some periods. Changing trends of ‘Lvling'leaf K contents being grafted onto J. mandshurica and J. regia rootstock were different, the changing trend of ‘Lvling'leaf K contents being grafted onto J. mandshurica rootstock appearred to be high at first and then turn down to stable, while leaf K content being grafted onto J. regia rootstock appeared to rise.The trends of N contents in shoots being grafted onto the two kinds of rootstocks appeared to turn down at first and then turn up. The trends of P content in shoots appeared to turn down and turn up and turn down again. The trends of K content in shoot appeared to turn down and turn up and turn down again.The trends of N content in 1 a branches being grafted onto the two kinds of rootstocks appeared to turn down and turn up and turn down again. The trends of P content in 1 a branches appeared to turn down and turn up. The trend of K content in 1 a branches appeared to turn down all the time.(5) The changing trends of ‘Lvling'walnut leaf chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid and total chlorophyll contents being grafted onto J. mandshurica and J. regia rootstocks appeared to turn up to the top and then turn down again. The highest contents of them appeared at June, July and August.The changing trends of ‘Lvling'leaf anthocyanidin contents being grafted onto the two kind of rootstocks appearred to turn down and then turn up again. In April and July, the ‘Lvling' leaf anthocyanidin contents being grafted onto J. mandshurica rootstock were 807.27 nmol·g-1 and 240.07 nmol·g-1, and onto J. regia rootstock were 329.04 nmol·g-1 and 146.41 nmol·g-1, and there had very significant differences between the two rootstocks in the two months.(6)The changing trends of ‘Lvling' leaf photosynthetic rates being grafted onto the two rootstocks appearred to turn up and then turn down again. In 13:00~15:00, the ‘Lv